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February 14 Zoology
Terms in this set (30)
Some animals are all white or all red fibers. True or False
3 characteristics of white fibers
-fewer blood vessels
4 characteristics of red fibers
-more blood vessels
what is the singular term for mitochondria
-elastic storage of energy, due to the stretch of tendons like a rubber band
-tendons are attached muscle to bone
-tendency toward internal stabilization of the body
- one of the neccessities of life is to have a a stable body temperature
two ways animals can change their internal tempertaure
the three internal systems that cooperature to maintain homeostasis
what is a cholera cot?
-bag inserted into your rectum
-cholera kills you with dehydration due to loss of water through diarrhea
what is osmosis?
-water moves across a semipermeable membrane in the direction of higher concentration
3 environments that an aquatic organism can find itself in
-Hypotonic= the environment is lessed concentrated than the body of the fish
-isotonic= the concentration of the outside against the side is the same, example is the hagfish
-hypertonic= the environment is more concentrated than the body of the fish
what does marine mean?
what is an osmotic conformer?
-animals that are in osmotic balance with seawater, typical of a stenohaline water
what is stenohaline water?
the concentration of salts are nearly always the same
what does steno and haline mean?
what is an osmotic regulator?
-marine invertebrates that have to control their salt and water balance because they live in euryhaline water
-oysters are osmotic regulators
what is euryhaline water?
-this water have a wide range of salt concentrations
how do freshwater invertebrates keep salt and water balance?
-they have to keep the body fluids with high concentration to keep up with water flow
-to get rid of excess water, they pump it out using the kidneys through dilute urine
how do marine fishes keep a salt and water balance?
-their ancestry is in freshwater
-they have to keep their body fluids one third the concentration of seawater
-to keep up this concentration, when seawater is in the body they pull the salt out of the water, then the blood transfer the salt to the gills and excretes it through the lungs
what major problem do terrestial animals face?
what is dessication? and how does it happen ( 3 way)s
-3 ways to dessicate
evaporation from their lungs and integument
excretion because of urea
how does an animal replace water? 3 ways
what is excretion?>
-getting rid of nitrogenous compounds
-amino acids and protein molecules need nitrogen to function, however once protein molecules are broken down, the nitrogen becomes toxic
in what form do fish excrete nitrogen?
-they excrete it as ammonia
-most of their nitrogen is excreted through the gills
in what form do terrestial animals excrete nitrogen?
-uric acid( insoluble in water)
what is the evolutinary advantage of uric acid?
- it is insoluble in water, thus in an egg when the embryo is creating nitrogenous waste it will not react with the nutrients around it
organs and tissues involved with excretion used by freshwater protistans, poriferans, and cnidarians
-they use contractile vacoules
-they gather the water through their contractile vacuoles then the vacuoles will go to the plasmalemma and dump out the waste water
protonephridium 2 things
-also known as a flame cell
-found in flatworms
3 things metanephridium
-a true nephridium
-segmented worms and mollusks have this
-the difference is the lack of flame cells
there is no organ called the coelomate. True or False
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