APWH Period 6: Modern (1900 - Present)

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imperialism
When one nation dominates another: economically, politically, or socially.
War of Attrition
When a war is fought by trying to wear down the opposing side instead of capturing a specific objective.
Bloody Sunday
When a peaceful protest to czar Nicholas II's palace was fired on by palace guards, killing over 100 people.
1917
The year Russia became the USSR. Also near the end of WWI and the influenza pandemic.
Armenian Genocide
Assault carried out by mainly Turkish military forces against Armenian population in Anatolia in 1915; over a million Armenians perished and thousands fled to Russia and the Middle East.
Leninism
Like Marxism, but this brand of communism was particularly interested in maintaining nationalist attitudes.
War Guilt Clause
Part of the Treaty of Versailles that blamed Germany for World War I. Led to enormous economic problems.
League of Nations
Organization formed at the end of WWI in the hope of preventing future wars.
Mandate System
After WWI, when the British claimed the need to rule the Middle East.
Ataturk
Responsible for secularizing and modernizing Turkey.
Friedrich Nietzsche
German philosopher who questioned the concept of absolute moral rules. His key ideas include the Übermensch (Superman) and the will to power.
Great Depression
Beginning with the collapse of the American stock market, a period of severe global economic hardship.
1929
Black Friday fell in this year (the Great Depression began).
1945
The year World War II ended.
Joseph Stalin
Leader of the USSR after Lenin. Responsible for the collectivization/Five Year Plans that led to massive famine. Known for his ruthlessness and brutality.
Mohandas Gandhi
Indian leader who advocated and practiced nonviolence. Largely responsible for the independence of India from the British.
Mao Zedong
Led the Chinese Communist Revolution, and the government of China after that event.
United Fruit Company
A transnational business known for their extensive control over Latin America.
Banana Republics
When a country with few exports is controlled by the company responsible for the exporting. For example, a company that exports fruit might dictate legislation.
Fascism
Political philosophy based on hypernationalism. Notable for its fostering of racism, international aggression, and corporatist economies.
Decolonization
When powerful nations, particularly European nations, began to undo the imperialist policies of the 1800s and before.
nationalize
When a nation seizes control of an industry.
Winston Churchill
Leader of Britain during WWII. Known for his blunt mannerisms and inspirational public speaking skills.
Cold War
Late 20th century period of heightened tensions between the two superpowers, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.
sphere of influence
A country or region in which another country has power to affect developments although it has no formal authority. Especially important in regards to the Cold War superpowers.
Marshall Plan
When the U.S. rebuilt Western Europe after WWII. In exchange, those nations allied with the U.S. instead of the U.S.S.R.
military-industrial complex
A term often used to describe the economic and political ties between the military establishment and the defense-aerospace industry. Buildup especially important in the Cold War.
Mutually-Assured Destruction
The idea that any use of nuclear weapons would lead to the destruction of BOTH superpowers.
NATO
The U.S. & Western European nations formed a military alliance; attack upon one nation is attack upon all.
Warsaw Pact
The U.S.S.R.'s response to NATO. A treaty organization made of the USSR and Eastern European countries.
proxy
When one person or group stands in the place of another. In war, when a nation's allies fight in their place.
containment
The Cold War idea that communism was spreading and the U.S. needed to intervene to stop that spread.
Green Revolution
The development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology and fertilizers in the mid-20th century.
proxy wars
During the Cold War, when the superpowers would fight the other superpower's allies.
detente
During the Cold War (following the Cuban Missile Crisis) - Time when the US and USSR relaxed the tensions between them.
James Bond
Fictional British spy - a good example of the influence of Cold War conflicts on popular culture.
negritude
A movement to celebrate African culture, heritage, and values.
Apartheid
A South African policy of complete legal separation of the races, including the banning of all social contacts between blacks and whites.
reggae
A style of music that developed in Jamaica in the 1960s and is rooted in African, Caribbean, and American music, often dealing with social problems and religion.
populist dictator
A dictator that claims to represent the common people. He often harms one group in favor of another.
Juan Perón
President of Argentina (1946-1955, 1973-1974). Famous for his efforts in favor of the poor and the assistance of his wife Eva 'Evita' Peron. A great example of a populist.
globalization
The idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected on a global scale, especially regarding economic and political life.
European Union
An example of a free trade agreement.
An international organization of European countries created to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members.
NAFTA
An example of a free trade agreement. This treaty between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico opens trade between those three nations.
refugee
A person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster
Internally Displaced Person
A person who is forced out of the home region due to war, political or social unrest, environmental problems, etc., but who does not cross any international boundary.
terrorism
Intentionally harming people in an attempt to frighten other people/governments into making changes.
al Qaeda
A network of Middle Eastern terrorist organizations led by Osama bin Laden that carried out the attacks on the US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998, the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000, and the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001.
Arab Spring
A revolutionary wave of protests and demonstrations overtaking dictators in the Middle East a few years ago.
ISIL
The Islamic State - an attempt to "recreate" the Muslim caliphates. A terrorist organization that wants to conquer the Middle East. Known for their brutality and their attacks on innocents and historic/cultural sites.
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