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38 terms

AP Psychology: Classical and Operant Conditioning

Vocab from Apex Learning and Psychology, AP Edition with Discovery Psychology
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preoperational
the second stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development, occurring from ages 2-7; during this stage, children are capable of using symbols in their thinking, but they lack the ability to perform logical operations
primary reinforcer
a reinforcer that meets a basic biological need
generalization
a transfer of a response learned from one stimulus to a similar stimulus
continuous reinforcement schedule
a schedule in which every instance of the target behavior is reinforced
spontaneous recovery
the quick reoccurrence of a previously extinguished response when the reinforcer for the response is reintroduced
desensitization
an example of a counterconditioning process
punishment
anything that follows a behavior and causes the behavior to decrease
schedule of reinforcement
a plan for how frequently a target behavior will be reinforced
operant conditioning
a type of conditioning in which the organism learns an association between a voluntary behavior and its consequences
classical conditioning
originally discovered by Ivan Pavlov; a form of learning in which a subject learns an association between two stimuli. First, a stimulus produces an automatic, unlearned response. The unconditioned stimulus is then paired with a neutral stimulus until the subject learns the association between the two stimuli, and the subject responds to the conditioned stimulus present alone
fixed schedule of reinforcement
a schedule in which reinforcement occurs after a consistent, or fixed number of responses (fixed ratio,) or after a consistent amount of time (fixed interval)
token economy
in operant conditioning, when one can earn tokens or some other reinforcer for certain behaviors
positive reinforcement
anything that causes a behavior to increase by administering something desirable in response to the behavior
neutral stimulus
a stimulus that does not provoke any particular response; in classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus (NS) is paired with the unconditioned stimulus (UCS until the organism learns the association between the two stimuli; the NS then becomes the conditioned stimulus (CS)
secondary reinforcer
a reinforcer that does not in and of itself meet a basic biological need, but it can be exchanged for primary reinforcers, which would meet a basic biological need; money is an example, because it can be exchanged for food or shelter
discrimination (race relations)
unjustifiable negative behavior toward another group or its members
Little Albert
the little boy who was conditioned by John Watson and Rosalie Raynor to be afraid of a white rat; Watson and Raynor used classical conditioning to pair the rat with a loud noise, until he began to exhibit fear in response to the rat
reinforcement
anything that follows a behavior and causes the behavior to increase
partial reinforcement schedule
a schedule of reinforcement in which only certain instances of desired behaviors are reinforced; fall into four types: fixed ratio, fixed interval, variable ratio, and variable interval schedules
conditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, the neutral stimulus that is paired with the unconditioned stimulus to provoke the conditioned response
shaping
the process of reinforcing successive approximations of the desired behavior until the organism is performing the desired behavior in its entirety
discrimination (learning)
the cognitive process whereby two or more stimuli are distinguished
extinction
in operant conditioning, the disappearance of a behavior due to a previously reinforced behavior no longer being reinforced
negative reinforcement
anything that causes a behavior to increase by removing an adverse condition in response to the behavior, like taking aspirin to remove a headache
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
a stimulus that provokes an innate, unlearned response
conditioned response
in classical conditioning, the response that has to be learned
variable schedule of reinforcement
a partial schedule of reinforcement in which the reinforcer is delivered after either varying numbers of responses or varying lengths of time
unconditioned response (UCR)
the unlearned, innate response to an unconditioned stimulus
stimulus generalization
a phenomenon in classical conditioning in which the conditioned response occurs in response to stimuli that are similar, but not identical, to the conditioned stimulus
ratio schedule of reinforcement
a partial reinforcement schedule in which the organism is reinforced based upon the number of instances of the desired behavior; there can be fixed ratio schedules or variable ratio schedules
blocking
an interruption in the flow of thought
simultaneous conditioning
CS and UCS are presented at the same time
delayed conditioning
CS is presented before UCS, but the two overlap
trace conditioning
CS is presented and then taken away before the UCS is presented
backward conditioning
UCS is presented before CS; makes acquisition difficult
temporal conditioning
time functions as CS; the learner comes to expect that the stimulus will come at particular times
saliency
the strength of a response pairing
extrinsic
something that comes from an external source