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48 terms

Layers of the Earth

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Asthenosphere
The soft layer of the mantle on which the sections of crust move.
Core
the innermost layer or center of the Earth.
Crust
The outermost layer or surface of the Earth.
Inner Core
The innermost layer of the core made of hot, dense, solid metals.
Lithosphere
the outer most layer of the mantle, including the crust.
Magma
minerals in the form of hot liquid rock; found in the mantle
Mantle
the layer of iron-rich minerals surrounding the core.
Outer Core
The outermost layer of the core made mainly of liquid iron and nickel.
Continental Crust
the thick section of the Earth's Crust below the continents.
Oceanic Crust
The thin section of the Earth's crust that makes up the ocean floors.
Continental Drift
Alfred Wegener's theory that the Earth's crust is divided into sections that move; he called the sections plates.
Pangaea
Greek word meaning "all Earth" or "all land"; a large supercontinent that Alfred Wegener said existed hundreds of millions of years ago.
Seafloor Spreading
The process of forming new oceanic crusts.
Tectonic Plate
A large section of Earth's crust.
Convection Currents
the heating and cooling cycle of magma in the mantle's asthenosphere.
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Extinct Volcano
A volcano that is not active and will not become active again.
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Shield Volcano
A large gently sloping mountain that forms from from many nonexplosive eruptions.
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Volcano
A cone shaped mountain that forms around a vent where magma is forced to the surface.
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Vent
An opening in the Earth's crust that channels magma to the surface
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Vent
An opening in the Earth's Crust that channels magma to the surface.
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Earthquake
The shaking of rock in the Earth's crust.
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Epicenter
The place directly above an earthquake's focus on the Earth's surface.
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Focus
The exact point where an earthquake begins.
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P-Waves
The first set of waves that travels quickly through the interior of the Earth after an earthquake
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Richter Scale
The scale that Charles Richter developed to measure and gauge an earthquake's strength
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Seismic Waves
Waves of energy that move away from an earthquake through the Earth in all directions
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Seismograph
A special instrument used to measure seismic waves generated by earthquakes
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Seismologist
A scientist who studies earthquakes.
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Surface Waves
The third set of waves that moves in a circular pattern through the Earth's surface after an earthquake.
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S-Waves
The second set of waves that travels more slowly through the Earth after an earthquake, cutting through the rock in the Earth's surface as they move.
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Tsunami
A large, forceful wave triggered by ocean floor earthquakes.
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