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World War II
Terms in this set (73)
League of Nations
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Hitler withdrew from this which was the first step WW2. Policy of peaceful cooperation went down the drain and Nazi determination to rearm was out in the open. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations. The treaty stripped Germany of all Army, forced to pay war damages, acknowledge guilt for causing WWI, and end the manufacturing of all weapons. Germany violated the Treaty several times before the allies stepped in. They wanted to appease his demands in order to avoid war. His goal was to overturn the "unjust system" established.
A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. The allies allowed Hitler to take Austrian, Czech, and Sudetenland. His demands continued to grow. He used self-determination to justify his needs. Adopted by Britain-grant demands within reason. 1) An Anglo-German agreement that broke Germany's isolation. 2) Hitler retook the Rhineland. 3) Defeated France w/0 opposition. Neville Chamberlain's policy. Policy was motivated by British feelings of guilt and the want for peace. Failure.
A region in Germany designated a demilitarized zone by the Treaty of Versailles; Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles and sent German troops there in 1936. Hitler declared the disarmament clauses of the Treaty of V. null and void. The last chance to stop the Nazis but France did not resist and the occupation seemed just to Britain. Ended w/ a tremendous psychological defeat to France.
The alliance between Italy and Germany. When the League of Nations condemned Italian aggression against Africa and Ethiopia, Hitler energetically supported Italy. This resulted in an agreement of close cooperation between Italy, Ger., and eventually Japan (1931).
In 1936 Japan signed this with Germany and it was later ratified by Italy. It was in opposition to Communism but actually proved to be the foundation for diplomatic alliance between these three powers. Each now had allies and pushed their demands for individual success. In 1938 Mussolini was willing to accept the German absorption of Austria which he had resisted in 1934.
Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940)
Britain's gullible prime minister who proclaimed appeasement as the solution to German aggression. He undermined Germany and was tricked in the end. Eventually declared that Britain and France would fight if Hitler attacked Poland.*
Hitler's union of Germany with the German-speaking population of Austria; took place in 1938, despite complaints of other European nations.**
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from everyone else. With only Britain left unconquered, this man proved to be one of the greatest wartime leaders, rallying the British w/ stirring speeches, infectious confidence, and bulldog determination. Led Britain during the Battle of Brit.
A region of Czechoslovakia where many Germans lived; demanded by Hitler in 1938 to have control of this land. The Czechs were prepared to defend themselves. Hitler threatened war. France had been Czech.'s ally and if France fought, the Soviet Union was pledged to help. Chamberlain and the French agreed w/ Hitler that the land should be ceded. Czechoslovakia was forced to give in.
"Peace for our time"
A term coined by Chamberlain at the Munich Conference, where the policy of appeasement was used. The policy was abandoned when Germany threatened Poland, and Brit and France finally declared war. After France, Ger, and Britain agreed to cede Sudetenland to Germany.
Conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further. Involved Germany, France and Britain only-no Soviet Union.
Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people-Drove to the east. First retook Austria, then Czechoslovakia.
Using planes, tanks. and trucks Hitler's armies crushed Poland in four weeks. Called the"Lighting war." A type of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939. Soviet Union took its part on the eastern half-Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia. French and British armies were blocked by Germany. France was taken by Germany, but Britain remained unconquered.
September 1, 1939
Date WWII began with German invasion of Poland. Beginning of WW2.
A secret agreement between the Germans and the Russians in 1939 that said that they would not attack each other should war break out. Soviet Union feared that France and Britain were planning to turn Germany against the SU. Hitler offered immediate territorial expansion. Hitler broke this agreement later on when he invaded the SU.
A city in northern France on the North Sea where in World War II (1940) 330,000 Allied troops had to be evacuated from the beaches at Dunkirk in a desperate retreat under enemy (German) fire. After Germany occupied Denmark, Norway, and Holland, Germany broke through southern Belgium and trapped the entire British army on this beach. Britain withdrew their troops (no equipment) but France was taken by the Nazis.
General who assumed power of the French government after defeat by Germany. He signed a peace treaty with Germany, and became the leader of Vichy France. New gov. and German armies occupied most of France.
A description of the international system in Nazi Germany. Based firmly on the guiding principle of Nazi totalitarianism: racial imperialism. The Nordic people-Dutch, Norwegians, and Dances-received preferential treatment, for they were racially related to the master race (Germans). The French were inferior and they occupied a middle position. They were heavily taxed to support the Nazi war effort but were toleration as a race. Eventually exploited w/ great intensity. Slavs were treat w/ harsh hatred as "subhumans." The vision of a vast eastern colonial empire where Poles, Ukrainians, and Russians would be enslaved and die out while German occupied the leftover space.
Battle of Stalingrad
Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union.
World War II battle between invading German forces and Soviet defenders for control of Stalingrad; each side sustained hundreds of thousands of casualties; Germany's defeat marked turning point in the war. Beginning of Soviet offensive.
Battle of Britain
An aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between Germany and Britain. German air forces invaded Britain but the British Royal Air Force drove them out with the help of the new invention radar that let them know where the German planes were. Germany carried out extensive bombing in Britain, which offered successful resistance. Inspired Churchill to withstand German forces (Chamberlain resigned). RAF frustrated Hitler. Led to Operation Barbarossa-the invasion of the Soviet Union.
The alliance between Britain, United States, and the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany during World War II.
Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945)
United States leader during WW2 who remained neutral at first but supplied Britain w/ war supplies in order to defeat Germany. "Defend America by Aiding the Allies" and "America First" Japan bombed Pearl Harbor and Germany declared war on the US. The US had mighty industry, large population, and national unity. Established the "Arsenal of Democracy."
"Arsenal of Democracy"
Referred to America's Ability to supply its European allies with war supplies prior to the U.S. entry into WWII.
Term introduced by President Franklin Roosevelt for America's role in World War II giving supplies to the British war effort to defeat Germany, but not go into war itself.
Approved by Congress in March 1941; The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States."*
Battle of Midway
World War II battle between the United States and Japan, a turning point in the war in the Pacific-U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. Used the concept of island hopping. 15% of allies in the Pacific.
Invasion of Normandy
June 6, 1944. This was a very carefully planned operation under the command of General Eisenhower. False intelligence reports led the Germans to expect the landings to be at Calais. In fact, they came at several locations on the Normandy coast. 130,000 troops landed on D-Day itself with waves more following on subsequent days. Some 1 million arrived in the first month. Paris was liberated by August and by September allied troops had crossed into German territory. Established the second front through France. D-Day. Operation Overlord. *
US leader in WW2. United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy, Casablanca and the defeat of Nazi Germany. Later appointed to be "Supreme Allied Commander" in Europe (he was placed in charge of all generals for all nations allied with the US). His next big plan was Operation Overlord. *
A nuclear weapon in which enormous energy is released by nuclear fission (splitting the nuclei of a heavy element). Used in Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the US to win WW2.
Harry S. Truman (1884-1972)
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb.
First major meeting between the Big Three (United States, Britain, Russia) at which they planned the 1944 assault on France and agreed to divide Germany into zones of occupation after the war*
Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war. 1945*
Allied leaders Truman (US), Stalin and Churchill (Britain) met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction. July 26, 1945*
Spanish Civil War
In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces (left) while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco and the Fascists rise to power. Nationalists (Franco) vs. Loyalists (supporters of the republic)
Spanish General; organized the revolt in Morocco, which led to the Spanish Civil War. Leader of the Nationalists - right wing, supported by Hitler and Mussolini, won the Civil War after three years of fighting.
The traditional form of antidemocratic gov. Tried to prevent major changes that would undermine the existing social order. They rlied on obedient bureaucracies, vigilant police departments, and trustworthy armies. Popular participation was forbidden. Yet they were limited in their power. Unable to control many aspects of their subject's lives (also no desire). Goal: Survival. Considerable personal independence. Founded on the wreckage of failed parliaments after war. Emerged b/c: Economic Crisis (depression), Lacked tradition of self-government, Treaty of Versailles (nations were wronged), political tensions following WW1 (ethnic conflicts), Wealthy landowners & Catholic Church tried to maintain power in agrarian societies. -concerned more w/ maintaining the status quo
A political ideology which advocates civil liberties and political freedom with limited government under the rule of law and generally promotes a laissez-faire economic policy. Mix of liberty and equality. Totalitarianism viewed this as disgusting b/c it sought to limit the power of the state and protect the rights of the individual. Stood for rationality, peaceful progress, economic freedom, and a strong middle class.
A type of radical dictatorship that rejected parliamentary restraint and liberal values. Exercised unprecedented control over the masses and sought to mobilize them for action. Subordinate all institutions and all classes to the state in order to achieve one supreme objective: victory. A radical revolt against liberalism. Believed in willpower, preached conflict, worshiped violence. Did not value individual. No lasting rights w/ only temporary awards. Link between fascism and communism in a "new state." Influenced largely by Lenin. Not based on an existing elite, but on people who were most committed to the state. Permanent revolution-rapid change forever.
A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition. Used to describe the total and revolutionary character of Hitler and Mussolini's movements. Linked to decaying capitalism and domestic class conflict-criticized. The way that powerful capitalists sought to create a mass movement capable of destroying the revolutionary working class and thus protect their enormous profits. Extreme nationalism, expansionism, anti-socialism, aimed @ destroying the working class movements, alliances w/ powerful capitalists, single leader, glorification of war. Generally failed.
The varieties of modern totalitarian tyranny-fascism, Nazism, and communism-were constantly fight, but w/ a common father: the nature of modern war. Opposites but very similar.
New Economic Policy
Lenin's economy reform that re-established limited economic freedom in an attempt to build agriculture and industry. Mixed economy-capitalism and communism. Heavy industry remained wholly industrialized. Few small markets and private traders. Successful both politically and economically. It was a necessary but temporary compromise w/ the overwhelming peasant majority. Brought rapid economic recovery. Increased industrial output and social benefits. Relaxed censorship and repression. Power struggle began in the comm. party.
Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)
Russian leader who established the basic outline of modern totalitarianism. He showed how a dedicated minority could achieve victory over a less determined majority. He enforced all politics and eliminated human rights w/ the usage of the secret police. Created the blueprint for a single-party dictatorship.
On sick bed this Russian leader dictated notes assessing leading communists as a guide (favored Trotsky, but when read to central committee by Zinovev, he added that Lenin was very sick and opinions should be taken w grain of salt- paved way for Stalin). Tried to choose successor, but couldn't b/c flaws in everyone. Tried to eliminate Stalin's rising power, but Stalin hid the document and rose to power anyways. Created doubt about Lenin's health.
Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)
He succeeded Lenin as leader of the Soviet Union. He pushed the USSR to industrialize in order to compete with the rest of the world. His Five Year Plan outlined production goals to be reached by 1933. He also built gulags, or prison camps, where people who did not meet these goals or who disagreed with them were imprisoned. Millions died or were executed. He also joined Hitler in crushing Poland but later accepted aid from the Allies after Germany attacked Russia. Good organizer, poor speaker and writer. More successful at gaining support of the party members. "Socialism in one country"-Soviet Union had the ability to build socialism on its own.
Stalin used this position to come to power. He enforced communist regulations. Forced peasants to give up land or else they would be executed. Greatly increased the importance of this position.
Leon Trotsky (1879-1940)
An inspiring leader who had planned the 1917 takeover and formed the Red Army. "Permanent revolution" -Socialism in the Soviet Union could only succeed if rev. quickly spread throughout Europe. Defeated by Stalin, who eventually killed him and rose to power.
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state. Increase total industrial output by 250%. Agricultural production increase by 150%, 1/5 of peasants needed to join socialist collectives. Feared the restoration of capitalism. Eliminate property-owning peasants.
5-Year Plan Communist/Marxian Goals
Elimination of capitalism-decline of the bourgeoisie. Creation of a socialist state. Gov. ownership and means of production. Industrialization of Russia-empowerment of the proletariat. Social welfare reform.
Successes of 5-Year Plans
Agricultural: 93% of peasants lived on collectives. Creation of a socialist society, but @ a very high cost. Industrial: produced 4x as much in 1937 as it had in 1928. Unheard of industrial growth. 25 million people migrated to the cities-creation of a socialist society. Rapid increase led to foreign investment and more factories.
Part of Stalin's 5 Year Plans. Forcible consolidation of individual peasant farms into large state-controlled enterprises. In 1929 peasants were ordered to give up their land and animals (state ownership). Kill the kulaks first. Russia remained largely agrarian peasants greatest number = greatest threat. Peasants had only recently gained land ownership, willing to fight for advancements. Led to economic and human disaster. "Second Serfdom"
Effects of Collectivization
Led to economic and human disaster. Decreased agricultural production. Peasants slaughtered their animals and burned their crops as a form of protest. Animals fell by half. Output of grain was almost identical to 1913. Stalin was forced to invest heavily in agriculture to repair damages. 10 million peasants died. A huge man-made famine in Ukraine killed 6 million people 1932-1933.
Wealthier peasants in Russia who were not allowed to join collectives. They were sent to "re-education" camps or they were killed. The Liquidation of the ---. Posed the greatest threat.
"Socialism in one country"
Joseph Stalin's concept of Russian communism based solely on the Soviet Union rather than the Leninist concept of international revolution; by cutting off the Soviet Union from other economies, the USSR avoided worst consequences of the Great Depression. USSR was capable of building socialism on its own.
A style of art and literature in the Soviet Union beginning in the 1930s that glorified Soviet communist ideals and goals. Combined creativity and political propaganda. Glorified Russian nationalism and Stalin. Rewrote history.
Also called the Terror, the Great Purges of the late 1930s were a massive attempt to cleanse the Soviet Union of supposed "enemies of the people"; nearly a million people were executed between 1936 and 1941, and 4/5 million more were sentenced to forced labor in the gulag.
Stalin's mass systemic murder of millions to instill fear and to have someone to fight against. A product was a new generation of Stalin-formed, loyal communists. Stalin fought real and imaginary enemies.
The secret police arrested a mass of lesser party officials and newer members. They tortured them and extracted confessions in public. Old Bolsheviks confessed to crimes against the soviet union; Shown to the world- showed Stalin was right. Used tp justify the purges.
Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
Italian fascist leader who began his career as a Socialist party leader and radical editor. After being expelled from the Italian Socialist party, he formed his own group called fascists. His program was a radical combination of national and socialist demands, including territorial expansion, benefits for workers, and land reform. With the gov. breaking down he stepped in as the savior of order and property. Carried out the March on Rome which led to his first year of dictatorial rule.
A private army under Mussolini who destroyed socialist newspapers, union halls, and Socialist party headquarters, eventually pushing Socialists out of the city governments of Northern Italy.
March on Rome
A strike "led" by Mussolini in Blackshirts and a large group of fascists marched on Rome to threaten the king and force him to call on Mussolini. Victor Emmanuel III (King) agreed and asked Mussolini to form a new cabinet. After widespread violence and the threat of an armed uprising , Mussolini seized power legally. He was granted dictatorial authority for one year by the king and the parliament.
Lateran Agreement (1929)
Catholic church, Vatican recognized as independent state and church gets financial support; pope urges Italians to support Mussolini's gov. One reason Mussolini's gov. is not truly totalitarian.
Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)
Born in Austria, Hitler became a radical German nationalist during World War I. Became a national figure after a failed Beer Hall Putsch. He led the National Socialist German Workers' Party-the Nazi Party-in the 1920s and became dictator of Germany in 1933. He gained supporters by rejecting free-market capitalism, adocating gob. programs to bring recovery, and targeting middle/lower class people. Eventually appointed by Hindenberg (planned to appease Hitler's demands). He led Europe into World War II. *
Beer Hall Putsch (1923)
Hitler's failed attempt to overthrow the Weimar government resulting in his imprisonment in Munich, where he wrote Mein Kampf. He became a national figure as he was placed on trial-denounced the Weimar republic.
"My Struggle"-a book written by Adolf Hitler during his imprisonment in 1923-1924 after his failed Beer Hall Putsch. He set forth his beliefs and his goals for Germany. "Space" and "Race" Living space for the master German race. Master Aryan race= extreme nationalism. Vision of war and conquered territory- saw himself as the dictator with unlimited authority.
The doctrines of nationalism, racism, anti-Communism, and the all-powerful role of the State. The National Socialist German Workers Party, otherwise known as the Nazi Party. Advocated by Adolf Hitler in Germany. Supported Karl Lueger's beliefs that Austrians and Germans were a "master race."
"Nazism" refers to the ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Workers' Party under Adolf Hitler, and the policies adopted by the dictatorial government of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. Goal was to abolish the injustices of capitalism.
Paul von Hindenburg (1847-1934)
President of Weimar Germany, who appointed Hitler chancellor in 1933; formerly a general in World War I. In March he signed the Enabling Act of 1933 which gave special powers to Hitler's government.
Enabled Hitler to get rid of the Reichstag parliament and pass laws without reference to parliament-Gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for 4 years
Nazi Storm Troopers. Brown shirts who beat up communists and Jews. They expected top positions in the army and called for a "second rev." Hitler's guards eliminated many of these leaders.
A special police force in Nazi Germany founded as a personal bodyguard for Adolf Hitler in 1925, from the German word "Schutzstaffel, meaning protection squad.
Acronym for Hitler's elite security force.**
Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945)
German Nazi who was chief of the SS and the Gestapo and who oversaw the genocide of six million Jews (1900-1945)
Entrusted by Hitler with administration of the "Final Solution" to the Jewish Question. Head of SS (Gestapo) which oversaw the Death Camps.
A group of anti-racial laws defining the status of Jews and withdrawing citizenship from persons of non-German blood-robbed German Jews of their citizenship in 1935.
"Night of Broken Glass" -the night of November 9, 1938, on which Nazi troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues throughout Germany**
Final solution of the Jewish question-murder of every single Jew-had begun-mass arresting, and trafficking of Jews to the concentration camps-mass killings occurred as well in the gas chambers-Began in Dec. 1941
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