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APUSH 1607-1763

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indentured servants
a poor person obligated to a fixed term of unpaid labor, often in exchange for a benefit such as transportation, protection, or training.
middle passage
the portion of a slave-ship's journey in which slaves were carried from Africa to the Americas.
house of burgesses
the London Company granted Virgina the right to establish a local government in 1619 and it was model after the English Parliament and gave the colonies a taste of independence.
trade and navigation acts
the were a series of laws which limited foreign trade in the colonies as well as the use of foreign ships starting in 1651.
mayflower compact
written for Plymouth colony by the Pilgrim colonists, who made their journey to the New World aboard the Mayflower and who were a part of a separatist group and wanted religious freedom.
roger williams
was an English theologian and had a philosophy of religious toleration and separation of church and state and he created Rhode Island in 1644 and provided a refuge for religious minorities.
great puritan migration
the migration of English people from England to the New World between the years of 1630 and 1640 because King James opposed the growing Puritan population of England.
new england confederation
a political and militaristic alliance of the New English colonies and was established in 1643, in order to establish an alliance of colonies against the Native Americans and serve as a place to settle colonial disputes.
freedom of consciences
is the freedom to have opinions on a fact, and have viewpoints or thought that are different than another person's.
jonathan edwards
was a minister and missionary to Native Americans and he played an important role in the Great Awakening of oversaw revivals at his church in Massachusetts; he was president of Princeton.
halfway covenant
was created to give partial church membership in New England in 1662 because some ministers felt that the people of the colonies were drifting away from the original religious purpose.
salem witch trails
a series of trails that prosecuted people of witchcraft in Massachusetts between 1692 and 1693 and it has come to represent religious extremism and the governments invasion of personal rights.
city on a hill
a phrase that became part of American vocabulary with John Winthrop's sermons in order to warn the colonist that would found Massachusetts, that it would be a "city upon a hill."
william penn
the founder of the Pennsylvania, the early ideas of democracy and religious freedom and he was famous for good relationships with Native Americans.
proprietary colony
a colony were private land owners maintain rights that are usually the rights of the state.
royal colony
a colony were the king directly rules the colony.
charter colony
a colony chartered to an individual or group by the British Crown.
peter zenger trails
he criticized the governor and was accused if "seditious libel" but he claimed what he printed was the truth and help establish the ideas of freedom of the press.
king philip's war
was a war between the Native Americans that occupied the southern parts of North England and the colonies and their Native American allies between 1675 and 1676.
george whitefield
was a minister of the Church of England and helped spread the Great Awakening in Europe and the colonies and his ministry had a big influence on American ideology.
great awakening
was a period of rapid and dramatic religious revival in American religious history which began in the 1730s.
thomas hobbes
was an English philosopher and his book Leviathan created a foundation for most of western political philosophy and he also influenced history, geometry, theology, ethics, philosophy, and political science.
mercantilism
is an economic theory which a colony or nation exists for the benefit of a mother country because the capital of a country is best increased through a favorable balance of trade and a mother country can advance these goals by encouraging exports and discouraging imports.
bacon's rebellion
was a revolt in 1674 which occurred in the colony of Virginia and it was the first revolt in the American colonies and consisted of frontiersmen and protested against Native American raids; the farmers did not win.
harvard college
was established in 1636 by vote of Massachusetts Bay Colony and is the oldest institution of higher learning in the US and it was created in order to train Puritan ministers.
phyllis wheatly
was the first American poet to be published, she was also the first African American woman and she helped create the genre of African American Literature and she was made an American slave at 7 but was taught to read and write.
pilgrims/separatists
the puritans that separated from the Church of England and they received a charter and set off to the New World but instead of landing in Virgina they landed in what would become Massachusetts.
anne hutchinson
was a colonist that settled in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New York, she declared her own interpretations of the bible and was banished from Massachusetts and she is key in the development of religious freedom in the colonies.
william bradford
was a leader of Massachusetts and he was a signer of the Mayflower compact and is credited to starting the American tradition of Thanksgiving.
french and indian war
was colonial war fought in North America in 1754 - 1763 between France and England and resulted in the English conquest of Canada and confirmed England's place in controlling colonial North America.
john locke
was an English philosopher during the 17th century he argued that people could learn everything through senses; that power of government comes from the people, not the divine right of kings and he offered possibility of a revolution to overthrow tyrants.
iroquois confredracy
in the 16th century they united, originally with 5 nations: Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca which represented 50 sachems in the Grand Council.
headright system
a grant of land to settlers in the colony by the Virginia Company and Plymouth Company and these were given to anyone would pay the costs of an indentured servant to come to the New World and land grants consisted of 50 acres.
salutary neglect
a long standing English policy of not enforcing parliamentary laws that were created in order to keep the colonies obedient to England.
albany plan
was proposed by Benjamin Franklin at the Albany Congress in 1754 and was one of the first attempts at achieving independence, during the French and Indian War.
james oglethorpe
was an English general who founded the colony of Georgia and he was a social reformer in England and by establishing this colony he hoped to resettle England's debtors to the New World