33 terms

The Unfinished Nation Chapter 31

APUSH: From "The Age of Limits to the Age of Reagan (Politics and Diplomacy after Watergate, the Rise of the New American Right, "Reagan Revolution," and American and the Waning of the Cold War
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Terms in this set (...)

Jimmy Carter
(827) Appealed to general unhappiness with Washington by offering honesty, piety, and an outsider's skepticism of fed govt. Democrat. Elected in 1976. Devoted time to problems of energy and economy.
Ronald Reagan
(826) Former CA governor and leader of Republican's conservative wing. Spoke for many on the right who opposed any agreements with communists.
Reaganomics/"Supply-side" economics/"trickle-down" economics
(838) Operated from the assumption that woes for American economy were in large part a result of excessive taxation... solution was to reduce taxes, with generous benefits to corporations and wealthy individuals in order to encourage new investments.
"entitlement" programs
(841) Like Social Security and Medicare. Budget suffered from its increase of costs... result of aging population and dramatic increases in the cost of health care.
Strategic Defense Initiative ("Star Wars")
(841) Named after popular movie... The most ambitious (/expensive) new military program launched by Reagan. Through use of lasers and satellites, SDI could provide effective shield against incoming missiles and thus make nuclear war obsolete. Soviet Union insisted that any arms control agreement must begin with American abandonment of this.
Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
(842) Guerrillas... 1982 an Israeli army launched invasion of Lebanon to drive them out from the country. American peacekeeping force entered Beirut to supervise their evacuation.... Reagan eventually withdrew.
Mikhail Gorbachev
(843,5) Leader of Soviet Union in 1984 and became most revolutionary figure in world politics.
1991 Evident that legitimacy of both Communist Party and central Soviet govt had been fatally injured. Resigned as leader of now virtually powerless Communist Party and Soviet govt, and the Soviet Union ceased to exist
Oliver North, Iran-Contra Scandal
(846) Obscure marine lieutenant colonel assigned to staff of National Security Council. Acting in concert with other, more powerful figures in administration. Did serious damage to Reagan presidency, even though investigations were never able to decisively tie the president himself to the most serious violations of the law.
SALT II
(826, 829) 1974 Ford met with Leonid Brezhnev at Vladivostok in Siberia....
Carter went to Vienna with Brezhnev to finish drafting agreement that limits number of long-range missiles, bombers, and nuclear warheads on each side. Met with fierce conservative opposition in US.
"malaise" speech
(827) After Carter went to Camp David (presidential retreat), he delivered television address with series of proposals for resolving energy crisis. He had a bleak assessment of the national condition and his claim that there was a "crisis of confidence" that had struck "at the very heart and soul of our national will." Helped to fuel charges that president was trying to blame his own problems on the American people
Panama Canal Treaty
(828) Carter began negogiating treaties to turn over control of Panama Canal to the govt of Panama. Senate ratified
Camp David Accords
(828) Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian president Anwar Sadat were invited by Carter to summit conference at Camp David in 1978. Early 1979 they went to White House to sign formal peace treaty btwn their two nations.
Ayatollah Ruhollo Khomeini
(829) Iran's religious leader who was fiercely anti-Western and anti-American. 1979 deposed shah went to NY... days later, armed mob invaded AMerican embassy in Tehran, seized Americans and demanded return of the shah to Iran. Meanwhile, Soviet troops invaded Afganistan
Sagebrush Rebellion
(831) Rise of the "Sunbelt" (regions that emerged together in postwar era to become basis of a changing economy and distinctive political culture). Mobilized conservative opposition to environmental laws and restrictions on development. Sought to portray West as victim of govt control. Demanded that lots fed govt land be opened for development
Billy Graham
(831) 1950s Evangelicals and Pentecostals began to attract huge national (and international) followings for their energetic revivalism.
Moral Majority/Christian Coalition
(832) "Christian right" became powerful political force. Fundamentalist minister launched highly visible movement.
1990s Pentecostal minister began political movement of his own. Opposed fed interference in local affairs, denounced abortion, divorce, feminism, and homosexuality. (...hate them already) Goal was a new era in which Christian values once again dominated American life.
Pat Robertson
(832) Pentecostal minister. See above. Used cable TV to reach conservative faithfuls.
Barry Goldwater
(833) Lost election in 1964. Energetic organizers responded by building new and powerful set of right-wing institutions to help conservative campaign more effectively. The right built direct-mail operation that ultimately reached millions of conservative voters.
Proposition 13
(834) (California) Referendum question on state ballot rolling back property tax rates. Similar antitax movements soon began in other states and eventually spread to national politics.
Edward Kennedy
(834) Senator and younger brother of John and Robert Kennedy. Challenged Jimmy Carter in primaries. Aroused little popular enthusiasm.
"neo-conservatives"
(836) Small but influential group of intellectuals who gave to the right something it had no had in many years: a firm base among "opinion leaders," people with access to most influential public forums for ideas. Sympathetic to complaints and demands of capitalists, but their principal concern was to reassert legitimate authority and reaffirm Western democratic, anticommunist values and commitments. "win back the culture" Wanted to escalate Cold War to destabilize Soviet Union
"nuclear freeze"
(841) Agreement btwn US and Europe not to expand their atomic arsenals. In response to pressure, administration began tentative efforts to revive arms control negotiations in 1983
Reagan Doctrine
(842) Helped groups resisting communism in 3rd World. Example of LAtin America...
Geraldine Ferraro
(843) First female candidate ever to appear on a national ticket. Mondale selected to be his running mate in Democratic campaign
Jesse Jackson
(842) Established himself as nation's most prominent spokesman for minorities and the poor.
Glastnost and perestroika
(843)
Openness... Dismantling of the many repressive mechanisms that had been conspicuous features of Soviet life for over half a century.
Reform... effort to restructure the rigid and unproductive Soviet economy by introducing elements of capitalism (like private ownership and profit motive)
Tianamen Square
(844) 1989 bloody massacre in which unknown number of demonstrators died. Crushed democracy movement and restored hard-liners to power. Did not stop China's efforts to modernized and even westernized its economy.
"apartheid"
(844) System designed to protect white supremacy. Had rigid enforcement until 1990s. Eventually repealed these laws.
Nelson Mandela
(844) Leader of African National Congress. Early 1990 South African govt retreated from traditional policies. Legalized chief black party in the nation (ANC), which had been banned for decades and released this guy from prison. Became first black president of South Africa
George H.W. Bush
(846,7) Republican who won in election of 1988... failed to spark any real public enthusiasm. Democrats retained secure majorities in both houses of Congress. Presidency was notable for dramatic developments in international affairs... absense of important initiatives or ideas on domestic issues.
Gulf War
(848,9) 1989-1991 Quick and (for the US) relatively painless victory over Iraq was highly popular in the US. Some advisers and other neoconservatives criticized president for not continuing and overthrowing Hussein.
Saddam Hussein
(849) 1990 Militaristic leader of Iraq... Announced he was annexing Kuwait... Bush administration agreed to lead other nations in campaign to force Iraq out of Kuwait, through pressure of economic sanctions (military force if necessary). Persuaded virtually every important govt of the world, including Soviet Union
Bill Clinton
(850) Won election of 1992. Democrats retained control of both houses of Congress.