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72 terms

digestion mv2 ap

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alimentary canal
digestive canal is also called ______
accessory
teeth, tongue, gallbladder, salivary glands, liver, pancrease are the ______ digestive organs
digestion
ingestion, mechanical digestion. propulsion, chemical digestion, absorbtion, defecation
short reflexes of digestion
short reflex (gut, brain - local plexuses)
long reflexes of digestion
local hormone control
peritoneum
visceral, parietal, a transparent membrane that lines the abdominal cavity in mammals and covers most of the viscera
mesentary
fused parietal and visceral, The membrane holds and coils of the small intestine together
retroperitoneal
located behind the peritoneum
intraperitoneal
within the peritoneal cavity
circulation of digestive system
splanchnic circulation (arterial and venous)
Mucosa
epithelium and lamina propria and muscular mucosa
submucosa
moderately dense ct w/ elastic fibers, blood, lymph nerve.
muscularis externa
inner and outer muscle layers, used in peristalsis and segmentation
serosa
visceral peritoneum (areolar ct and squamous) and/or adventita ct
enteric nervous system
submucosal plexuses and myenteric plexuses, This is the involuntary nervous system that control the GI tract
mouth histology
strat. squamous, lightly keritonized
pharynx
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
esophogus histology
strat. squamous, esophageal glands (mucus)
esophageal hiatus
where the esophagus penetrates the diaphragm
cardiac orifice
where the esophagus meet the stomach. it is named this because of its proximity to the heart.
parts of stomach
cardia, fundus, body, pyloric region
duodenum
The first section of the small intestine
deglutition
swallowing, the act of swallowing
amylase
enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches
antrum
lower portion of the stomach
omentum
an extension of the peritoneum attached to the stomach and connecting it with other abdominal organs
nerve supply to stomach
para: vagus x; symp: thoracic splanchnic (celiac plexus)
regulation of gastric secretion
neural and hormonal
neural regulation para
para - vagus X stimulates secretion
neural regulation symp
depresses secretion
gastrin
stimulates HCl and enzyme secretion
stimuli for gastrin secretion
cephalic: cortex, hypothalamus. Gastric: food, stomach digestion. Intestinal: low pH
gastric emptying
response to stomach filling
gastric contractile activity
pacemaker cells
small intestine openings
Pyloric sphincter and Iliocecal valve
duodenum
the part of the small intestine between the stomach and the jejunum
jejunum
Middle portion of the small intestine
ileum
the part of the small intestine between the jejunum and the cecum
cecum
the cavity in which the large intestine begins and into which the ileum opens
superior mesenteric
vessel carrying blood to the upper part of the abdomen.
hepatic portal
blood flow to the liver, nutrients are picked up by capillaries in the small intestine and are transported to the liver, excess nutrients can be stored in the liver
circular folds
deep folds of the mucosa and submucosa that extend completely or partially around the circumference of the small intestine
villi
tiny, finger-like structures that protrude from the wall of the intestine
microvilli
Tiny hair-like projections of the cytoplasmic membrane located only in the small intestine to facilitate absorption by increasing surface area.
histology of small intestine
simple col. ep w/pits, crypts, goblets. Submucosa w/ duodenal glands, muscularis and serosa and adventita
porta hepatis
Is the region where the hepatic artery and the portal vein enter and the hepatic ducts leave the liver.
micro anatomy of liver
liber lobules
gallbladder
the organ that stores bile after it is produced by the liver
pancreas
gland that secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum, where it mixes with bile to digest food
secretin
A hormone secreted by the small intestine (duodenum) in response to low pH (e.g., from stomach acid). It promotes the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas to act as a buffer.
cholecystokinin
hormone from the duodenum that stimulates release of pancreatic enzymes and bile from the gallbladder for fatty protein-rich chyme
HCl
a strong acid present in the stomach that aids in digestion, secretion by parietal cells
pancreatic juice
Vagal. Secreted by the Pancreas to digest Carbohydrates, Protein, and Fat.
segmentation
alternating regions of contraction and relaxation; mixes chyme and spreads it over length of small intestine
peristalsis
the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along
anus
excretory opening at the end of the alimentary canal. mostly water absorption
taniae coli
three narrow bands of longitudinal muscles in the walls of the large intestine, which are primarily observed in the cecum and colon and less visible in the rectum.
haustra
pouches that form in the large intestine when the longitudinal muscles are shorter than the colon
epiploic appendags
small pouches of the peritoneum filled with fat and situated along the colon and upper part of the rectum. They are chiefly appended to the transverse and sigmoid parts of the colon, however, their function is unknown.
cecum
the cavity in which the large intestine begins and into which the ileum opens
colon
the part of the large intestine between the cecum and the rectum
rectum
the terminal section of the alimentary canal, Stores feces
anal canal
last 1 inch of GI tract
histology lg intestine
simple col. (Anal=strat squam.) - with goblets.
bacterial flora
digest leftover, gases, release vt. B andK
chemical digestion
enzymatic hydrolysis
carb digestion
salivary amylase, pancreatic amylase, monosacch.
protein digestion
pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, amino-carboxy dipeptidase, amino acid.
lipid digestion
lipase - 2 fatty acids and monoglyceride
absorption
facilitated diffusion.
chylomicrons
fat droplets covered in protein that diffuse into capillaries in small intestine
active transport
transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient