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neutral stimulus

n classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning is called a(n)

classical conditioning

Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate

higher-order conditioning

Associating a conditioned stimulus with a new neutral stimulus can create a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. This best illustrates

biological predispositions

Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by


Correlational studies show that prolonged viewing of televised violence ________ increased rates of violent behavior.

increase; decrease

Negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and punishments ________ the rate of operant responding.


A child who is punished for swearing at home but reinforced for swearing on the school playground is most likely to demonstrate a patterned habit of swearing that is indicative of

increase; increase

Positive reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding.

a critical period

By about age 7, those who have not been exposed to either a spoken or a signed language gradually lose their ability to master any language. This illustrates the importance of ________ for language acquisition.

Whorf's linguistic determinism hypothesis.

Many people who are bilingual experience a different sense of self, depending on which language they are using. This most clearly illustrates the implications of


A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer is called a ________ reinforcer.

fixed-ratio; variable ratio

Paul and Michael sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Paul is paid $1.00 for every five calls he makes, while Michael is paid $1.00 for every subscription he sells, regardless of the number of calls he makes. Paul's telephoning is reinforced on a ________ schedule, whereas Michael's is reinforced on a ________ schedule.

learning associations

Conditioning is the process of


Your heart may race when you are confronted by a lion but not when you are approached by a kitten. This best illustrates the adaptive value of

operant conditioning

Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying

observational learning

Mirror neurons are believed by some scientists to provide a biological basis for

mirror neurons

It has been suggested that ________ are activated when a monkey moves a peanut into its own mouth and when a monkey simply observes other monkeys move a peanut into their mouths.

a built-in readiness

Noam Chomsky attributed children's ability to pick up language so readily to


the smallest speech units that carry meaning.

use of symbols

Research on the language capabilities of apes clearly demonstrates that they have the capacity to communicate through the ______

universal grammar

Noam Chomsky suggested that all human languages share a(n)


A real estate agent showed Gavin several pictures of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth-watering meal. Later, when Gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakeshore property was a

conditioned stimulus

A dog salivates to the sound of a tone because the tone has regularly been associated with the delivery of food. In this case, the tone is called a(n)

unconditioned response

In Pavlov's experiments, the taste of food triggered the dog's salivation. Salivation to the taste of food was a(n)

perceive the injuries of victims of violence as less severe.

Most of the TV shows that 9-year-old Fred watches involve violence. This is most likely to lead Fred to

positive reinforcer

Every Saturday morning, Arnold quickly washes the family's breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car. In this instance, washing the car is a(n)


A partial schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses is a ________ schedule.

continuous reinforcement; partial reinforcement

A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of _________ followed by ________.

receptive language

Mentally segmenting other's spoken sounds into individual words best illustrates a 7-month-old's capacity for


A partial reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response that occurs after an unpredictable period of time is a ________ schedule.

justified violence that causes no visible pain or harm.

Children are especially likely to behave aggressively after viewing TV violence in which an attractive person commits

observational learning

Dan and Joel, both 4-year-olds, have been watching reruns of "Superman" on television. Joel's mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. What best accounts for the boys' behavior?

unconditioned stimulus

In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n)

may be produced

Watson and Rayner's study of Little Albert demonstrated how specific fears____________ through classical conditioning


No matter what language we first use, our first words are mostly


The system of rules in a language that enables us to understand and communicate with others is called

biological predispositions

It's easier to train a pigeon to peck a disk for a food reward than to flap its wings for a food reward. This illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.

discriminative stimulus

A pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signaling that a pecking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face is a(n)

operant conditioning

In which form of learning is behavior influenced by its consequences?


are the rules by which we derive meaning from sounds.


The ability to produce words is to productive language as the ability to comprehend speech is to ________ language.

unconditioned response

sweating in hot weather is an


refers to the decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed


The heart begins to beat during the ________ period of prenatal development.

stable over time

A child's temperament is likely to be

observation imitation

Social learning theorists emphasize that ________ and ______ play a crucial role in the development of gender identity

gender schema

The belief that boys are more independent than girls is a

more; more

Gay men report ________ interest in uncommitted sex and ________ interest in their partner's physical attractiveness than do lesbian women.

twin studies

To estimate trait heritability, researchers are most likely to make use of


Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us, is an aspect of our

selective mating

Dmitry Belyaev and Lyudmila Trut successfully domesticated wild foxes by means of

a selection effect

Placing ourselves in environments well suited to our existing traits best illustrates


Female children are more likely to be labeled "tomboys" if they were exposed to excess ________ during their prenatal development.

long-term potentiation

increases the likelihood that a single neuron can cause an action potential-permanently


characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity


proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes


The immediate settings with which the child interacts, such as the home, the school, and one's peers


Consists of the relationships that exist between two or more persons in the developing person's life (parent to parent, teacher to parent)


Parts of environment child has no direct contact with but is impacted by (eg. neighborhood, church, mass media, government, parents workplace)


consists of cultural values, laws, customs, and resources


the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo


the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month


the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth


environmental agent, such as a virus, a drug, or radiation, that can interfere with normal prenatal development and cause developmental abnormalities


When Tommy's mother hides his favorite toy under a blanket, he acts as though it no longer exists and makes no attempt to retrieve it. Tommy is clearly near the beginning of Piaget's ________ stage.

theory of mind

Five-year-olds who were surprised to discover that a Band-Aids box contained pencils were able to anticipate their friend's false belief about the contents of the box. This best illustrates that the children had developed a ________

reason abstractly

According to Piaget, during the formal operational stage people begin to ________

age related timing; sequence

Infant motor development is typically characterized by individual differences in ____not the ____ of the major developmental milestones.

infantile amnesia

Our earliest conscious memories seldom predate our third birthday. This best illustrates ________


Juanita suffers from a painful back condition. Smoking marijuana would reduce her pain, but she thinks it would be wrong because it is prohibited by the laws of her state. Juanita is demonstrating Kohlberg's ________ level of morality.


According to Erikson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the

popular and self-assured

Boys who mature at an early age tend to be more

secure attachment

Providing children with a safe haven in times of stress contributes most directly to _____

concrete operational

According to Piaget, children come to understand that the volume of a substance remains constant despite changes in its shape during the ________ stage.


Regis thinks it's wrong to drive over the speed limit simply because he might get punished for doing so. He is demonstrating Kohlberg's ________ stage of morality.


The selective loss of unused connections among brain cells is called


extends from the beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood.

frontal lobes; limbic system

During adolescence, maturation of the ________ lags behind maturation of the ________.

primary sex characteristics

The body structures that enable reproduction are the


according to Piaget ________ refers to adjusting current schemas in order to make sense of new experiences.

conscious memory

One study found that English-speaking adults could relearn subtle sound contrasts in the Hindu or Zulu they had spoken as children even though they had no ________ of the Hindu or Zulu language they had once spoken.

body contact

Studies of monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that mother-infant emotional bonds result primarily from mothers providing infants with

mere exposure

Unlike ducklings, children do not imprint. Their fondness for certain people, however, is fostered by ________


During which of Piaget's stages does a person develop an awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived?

concrete operational

According to Piaget, children come to understand that the volume of a substance remains constant despite changes in its shape during the ________ stage.


According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents ________ morality.


According to Kohlberg, postconventional morality involves affirmation of ________ ethical principles


According to Vygotsky, parents who say "No, no!" when pulling a child's hand away from a cake are giving the child a tool for

social phobia

An incapacitating and highly distressing fear about being embarrassed in the presence of others is most characteristic of

generalized anxiety disorder

________ is characterized by a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal.

post-traumatic stress disorder

Two years after being brutally beaten and raped, Brianna still experiences jumpy anxiety and has trouble sleeping and vivid flashbacks of her assault. Brianna is most clearly showing signs of


Wilma is extremely agitated because she hears voices that tell her to sexually seduce the male nurses in her hospital ward. Wilma is most clearly suffering from


Disruptive or withdrawn behavior, poor peer relations, and solo play have been noted as early warning signs of

diagnostic labels

The ability of mental health professionals to quickly communicate the characteristics of their patients' complex symptoms is most clearly facilitated by the use of

biopsychosocial approach

Professor McIntosh emphasizes that depression often involves the interactive influences of self-focused rumination, rejection from others, and low serotonin levels. The professor's emphasis best illustrates a

major depressive disorder

Compared with the general population, those who have suffered ________ have at least five times greater risk of suicide. This also is characterized by feelings of personal worthlessness

adolescent females

Rates of non-suicidal self-injury in the United States are highest among


A disorder in which a person loses contact with reality and experiences irrational ideas and disordered perceptions is a


Delusions of persecution are most common among those with ________ schizophrenia.

emotional extremes

The prominent feature of mood disorders is the experience of

depression's vicious cycle

Stressful events interpreted with a negative explanatory style can encourage dampened mood states that lead to behavioral withdrawal and subsequent social rejection by others. This best illustrates

obsessive-compulsive disorder

Cecil is preoccupied with thoughts of jumping out the window of his tenth-floor apartment. To reduce his anxiety, he frequently counts his heartbeats aloud. Cecil would most likely be diagnosed as experiencing


Schizophrenia is associated with an excess of receptors for

stimulus generalization

A person attacked by a fierce dog develops a fear of all dogs. This best illustrates

social rejection

People who suffer chronic depression are at high risk for experiencing


Depression is more likely to be a shared tendency between identical twins than between fraternal twins. This most clearly supports explanations of this mood disorder from a ________ perspective.

bipolar disorder

George Frideric Handel composed his Messiah during three weeks of intense, creative energy. Many believe Handel suffered a mild form of


According to the ________ perspective, anxiety is sometimes produced by the submerged mental energy associated with repressed impulses.

the medical model

The discovery that psychologically disordered behavior could result from syphilis infections facilitated the credibility and acceptance of

negative outcomes

Cognitive changes that accompany depression include a(n) increased expectation of _________.


Internal, stable, and global explanations of one's own failures are indicative of


offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person.


Abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are associated with


A disorder in which an individual is overexcited, hyperactive, and wildly optimistic is known as

self-blaming attributions

The social-cognitive perspective has emphasized that depression is perpetuated by


In which type of disorder is a person's speech likely to be so full of unrelated words and phrases that it could be characterized as a "word salad"?
Also, Flat affect and catatonia are symptoms most closely associated with this

learning perspective

Which perspective emphasizes the role of classical conditioning in the onset of anxiety disorders?

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