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Nervous System Study Guide
Terms in this set (38)
Central Nervous System
The place where sensory information is received and motor control is initiated in the Brain and Spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System
The place where voluntary and involuntary control occur in the rest of the body.
Similarities between CNS and PNS
1. Transmitters can be excitatory or inhibitory.
2. Both contain neurons.
3. Both use action potentials.
Differences between CNS and PNS
1.The Central Nervous System comprises of the brain and the spinal cord whereas the Peripheral Nervous System comprises of the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system.
2. CNS processes and sends out signals and PNS is for sensory info
3. PNS can heal itself.
What are two divisions of the PNS?
What part of the autonomic nervous system is associated with "fight or flight"?
Sympathetic nervous system
What part of the autonomic nervous system is associated with normal functioning? (Chillin' out division)
Parasympathetic nervous system
Draw and Label a Neuron
Label these structures: Dendrites, cell body, axon hillock, axon, myelin sheath, nodes, axon terminal, and synaptic end bulbs.
Make protein and nucleus location.
Action Potential starts here
Axon potential travels here
Increase the speed at which impulses propagate along the myelinated fiber
Nodes of Ranvear
The gap between the myelin sheath.
Synaptic End Bulb
The end of an axon in which neurotransmitter molecules are stored and released.
Describe the importance of Myelin.
Myelin speed up action potentials. Action potential causes Ca+ channels to open and neurotransmitters to be released.
To provide support and to insulate the axons in the central nervous system of some vertebrates. Forms myelin in CNS.
Star shaped cells that form the blood brain barrier and provide support and nutrients.
The active immune defense in the central nervous system.
Forms myelin in the PNS.
Steps of an Action Potential from Stimulus to Neurotransmitters (SHORT ANSWER)
1. Stimulus at the dendrite.
2. Sodium channels open at axon hillock.
3. Sodium floods neuron causing depolarization.
4. Voltage gated channels open on the axon and leads to more depolarization.
5. Depolarization travels to synaptic terminal causing calcium to enter synaptic end bulb.
6. Neurotransmitters released.
Describe resting membrane potential and how neurons achieve this.
At rest, neurons have sodium on the outside and potassium on the inside. Neurons achieve this through the sodium potassium pump. Resting membrane potential at 70 milivolts.
Describe depolarization and how it turns into a nerve impulse
Sodium flows in making inside positive and outside negative. Nerve impulses switch charges causing channels to open.
What is the purpose of the refractory period?
No action potential can occur at this time and this keeps action potentials from going backwards.
What happens when an action potential reaches the synaptic terminal?
This causes voltage gated calcium channels to open, then calcium flows into synaptic terminals causing neurotransmitters to be released into synaptic cleft.
Describe what a synapse is and list the parts of a synapse.
A connection between 2 neurons.
Parts include: Synaptic end bulbs, neurotransmitters, synaptic cleft, and receptors on the dendrites.
Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, Seratonin, and Dopamine.
Glutamate (universally excitatory), GABA (universally inhibitory), Glycine, and Proline.
What are the effects a neurotransmitter can have on its target cell?
Can be inhibitory in decreasing and can be excitatory in increasing.
The Steps of neurotransmission.
4. Receptor interaction
The criteria for being a neurotransmitter
1. Present in terminal
2. Released on firing
3. Placing substance or organ emulates firing
4. Uptake for inactivation
5. Inactivation blocks stimulation
The 4 effects drugs can have on neurotransmitter activity.
Excitatory agonist- Increase the stimulation of receptors.
Excitatory antagonist- Decrease the stimulation of receptors.
Inhibitory agonist- Slows things down.
Inhibitory antagonist- Speeds things up.
Describe what happens to neurotransmitters after they are released from the synaptic end bulb.
1. Reuptake and inactivated back into synaptic end bulb.
2. Bind to receptors.
3. Degraded by an enzyme.
Three types of neurons
Motor Neurons: Takes signals to muscles and organs
Sensory Neurons: Takes signals to brain
Interneurons: Communicate between sensory and motor neurons
Cells that support neurons
Immune cells of brain and spinal cord.
Recommended textbook explanations
Anatomy & Physiology Student Workbook
Kent Pryor, Richard Allan, Tracey Greenwood
The Human Body in Health & Disease
Gary A. Thibodeau, Kevin T. Patton
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Human Anatomy And Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn
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