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Terms in this set (19)

"The queens and warlords of plasmodium"

-Common in African wilderness
-Fever, headache, anemia, splenomegaly,

-Blood stain and Giemsa stain to see parasites in RBCs

MALARIAE
-Quartan fever cycle (72 hours)

VIVAX and OVALE
-Produce dormant forms in liver called hypnozoites
-Tertian fever cycle (48 hours later)

FALCIPARUM
-Irregular fever patterns
-Cerebral malaria
-Parasitized RBC's occlude vessels to kidney and lungs.
-Parasite is banana shaped in peripheral blood smear

TREATMENT
-Chloroquine- works by blocking plasmodium heme polymerase - can't destroy hipnozoites. Lots of resistance to this
-Primaquine - can destroy hipnozoites. Check for G6PD deficiency to not cause anemia
-Mefloquine - good against resistant species. Good for travelers going to chloroquine resistant areas.
-Atovaquone + proguanil - good prophylactic. Good for parasites resistant to chloroquine and for traveler going to those areas


how to treat severe infections caused by p. falciparum
-ARTemisins
-Can also treat with atovaquone/proguanil
-Sickle cell disease is protective against this disease
-Use IV Artesunate for severe malarial infections
-Quinidine (IV)- used for resistant species. Side effect = cinchinism and tinnitus.


Lifecycle of plasmodium - transmitted by anopheles mosquito
-Carry sporozoites in saliva
-Sporozoites mature in liver to trophozoites --> Schizont divides into merozoites which burst from hepatocytes and infect RBCs
-In RBC --> trophozoite --> schizont --> merozoite --> RBC
-Immature schizont has ring shape in RBC
-merozoite can form gametocyte (sexual form)
-Cycle is continued when mosquito bites and takes up gametocytes
Super worms

ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS (AKA pinworm)
-Female worms lay eggs at the anus
-Transmitted via fecal-oral route (itchy so people scratch and then put fingers in mouth)
-Generally affects kids
-Scotch tape test - see eggs under microscope
Treatment: pyrantel pamoate or albendazole (can be used for all intestinal nematodes)

ANCYCLOSOTMA DUODONALE and NECATOR AMERICANUS
-Found in rural southern US
-Hookworms!
-Larvae penetrate skin of soles of feet --> go in blood to lungs --> coughed up and swallowed --> mature into adults in intestine.
-Attach to gut wall and then feed on blood --> leads to iron deficiency ANEMIA
-Diagnosis: look for eggs in stool. Look for high eosinophil count (EOSINOPHILIA)
-Treatment: pyrantel pamoate and albendazole, wear shoes

ASCARIASIS LUMBRICOIDES
-Transmitted by eating eggs in contaminated food/water
-Blood stream --> lungs --> coughed up --> intestines
-Can cause malnutrition or respiratory symptoms
-It is the most likely to cause RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS
-Major complication: Intestinal obstruction at ileocecal valve
-Diagnosis: Eggs in feces, eosinophilia
-Treatment: albendazole

STRONGYLOIDES STERCORALIS
-Larvae penetrate skin of soles of feet
-Blood --> lungs --> GI tract
-Larvae hatch from eggs laid in intestinal wall --> re-penetrate wall --> enter blood stream again.
-Eggs are NOT passed into stool (b/c laid in intestinal wall), but instead you see larvae in stool.
-Eosinophilia
-Treatment: Albendazole, ivermectin

TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS
-Found in undercooked meat (pork, bear)
-Periorbital edema, Fever, vomiting
-Myalgias - b/c after cysts are ingested --> larvae enter blood stream and travel to striated muscle and form cysts there --> muscle inflammation
-Eosinophilia
-Treatment: albendazole.