Comparative Politics Ch 4,5,6
Terms in this set (90)
____ are the most fundamental components of political economy
markets and property
markets can be best defined as the
the interactions between the forces of supply and demand
Country X has no direct taxation of its people, but citizens are limited in what they can earn because wages are fixed. no matter what a citizen's age or job is, the state provides for his or her health costs, education, and retirement, even though the quality of those services may be low. If a citizen does have cash, he or she can buy private goods but only illegally on the black market. In which of the following categories would this country belong?
in the United Staes, the government cannot take a citizen's property without just cause and compensation. that is an example of:
a property right
Public Goods are best defined as
goods, provided or secured by the state, that are available for society and indivisible
which of the following would be considered a public good in the United States
what is the oldest of the political-economic systems, and what system first rose to challenge it?
mercantilism, first challenged by liberalism
in which of the following ways do both communism and mercantilism differ from liberalism
they have high state autonomy and capacity
the total market value of all goods and products produced in a year is known as
the gross domestic product (GDP)
the ___ is in charge of regulating the supply of money in a country
extremely tight control over the money supply may result in ____, a condition that has plagued japan since 1998
what is a primary tactic used by central banks to combat inflation
raising interest rates
when governments print more money because they lack revenue, one result may be
taxes on imported goods are known as
restrictions that limit the quantities of foreign goods coming into a country are an example of
In which of the following ways does using purchasing power parity to calculate GDP differ from the use of straight GDP in measuring a country's economic development
It typically elevates measured income for countries with advanced welfare systems
since the major economic downturn of the last decade, one trend in the US, canada, and japan has been:
A reverse of economic liberalism
Which of the following statements about happiness as a measure in political-economic systems is accurate?
in the US, relative income is likely to be a better predictor of happiness than standard of living
liberalism's view of the relationship between freedom and equality favors:
freedom over equality
social democracy can be defined as a system that
attempts to balance freedom and equality
over the past two decades, most countries around the world have
increase economic liberalization
which of the following statements about neocorporatism is accurate
neocorporatism involves a greater role for organized labor in economic policy than in the liberal model
which political-economic system views private property as a form of exploitation
mercantilism is best associated with which of the following policies
which of the following statements about social expenditures is accurate
expenditures on highways are more likely to benefit the well-off than the poor
which political-economic system views the economy as an instrument to serve state power and national sovereignty
which of the following statements about the state of world liberalization in the twenty-first century is accurate?
political forces that oppose liberal trade policies have grown in Europe
purchasing power parity is a way to measure
the buying power of income across countries
the Gini index is one way that social scientists measure
the amount of economic inequality in a society
which of the following statements about global inequality during the past 20 years is accurate?
the global Gini coefficient has dropped slightly but remains high
which of the following is more likely to be a problem in presidential system than in a parliamentary system?
a policy disagreement between the legislative and executive that restricts lawmaking for a long period, even if the executive has become unpopular with the electorate
what is meant by the term liberal democracy
a democratic system that promotes participation, competition, and liberty
republicanism can be defined as
a system that emphasizes separation of powers and representation of the public through elected officials
which of the following statements about the relationships among democratization, modernization theory, and political elites is accurate?
according to modernization theory, economic development is important to democratization, but a focus on elites shows that the type of wealth or resources has a big impact on the success of democratization
in which of the following ways does a proportional representation (PR) system differ from a single-member district (SMD) system
voters in a PR system are typically more willing to vote for smaller parties
which of the following has an effect of the rapid development of many asian countries in the 1970s on the study of democracy
it helped to discredit modernization theory
the origins of british democracy can be traced back to the
magna carta, 1215
which of the following statements about legislative structures is accurate?
the majority of liberal democracies have bicameral systems
a diverse fabric of organizations created by people, not necessarily political to help define and advance their own interests is known as
the executive who symbolizes and represents the people is the
head of state
the executive in charge of dealing with running the state and formulating policy is the
tbd (but i think chief exec)
bicameral systems can be traced back to different representation for
which of the following statements about bicameralism is accurate?
in a parliamentary system, the prime minister serves as
head of government
in a presidential system, the president typically serves as
both head of state and head of government
which of the following statements about constitutional courts in the world is accurate?
trials have more influence on constitutional interpretation in countries with a fused appellate and constitutional court
the ability of constitutional courts to strike down legislation even in the absence of a specific court case is known as ___ review
prime ministers can be removed through which mechanism?
vote of confidence
which of the following statements about semi-presidential systems is accurate?
constitutional courts are often less powerful as a result of appointment by the president
which of the following accurately describes a component of a mixed electoral system?
voters are allowed two votes, one for a candidate and one for a party
single-member district systems are:
electoral systems in which a candidate must win an absolute majority of the vote in a district to win the seat
proportional representation systems can be defined as:
electoral systems in which the percentage of votes a party receives in a district will determine how many seats the party will win
the electoral system that tends to produce a large number of political parties is:
in which of the following ways does a parliamentary system differ from a presidential one?
prime ministers must command a majority to stay in office; presidents do not
which of the following best describes the correlative relationship between the type of executive in a country and the type of electoral system used to elect the legislature?
there is no correlation between type of executive and the kind of electoral system used to elect the legislature
a national vote initiated by the government on a particular policy issue is commonly known as
which of the following statements about referenda and initiatives is accurate?
formal power to call national referenda lies with the head of state in many european countries
civil rights typically refers to the promotion of:
a political scientist notes that in a particular voting district, an elected representative has formed an especially close bond with her constituents, and that during her past term she even voted against the will of her party in order to better support the popular will of the people in her district. the political scientist would most likely use this observed relationship to argue that:
single-member district systems are superior to proportional representation systems
the idea of legal institutions to which everyone is subject is known as
the rule of law
nondemocratic regimes are best defined as political systems wherein
a small group of individuals exercises power over the state without being constitutionally responsible to the public
country x holds regular elections for a legislature, though most of its citizens have little faith in the validity of the results. its powerful military operates largely outside of the control of the government, but it does not control the actions of the government. the government executive wields enormous power, but there is also a judiciary that occasional rules on constitutional matters. a number of political parties compete with each other, but the government regularly restricts their campaigning activities. Based on this description, in which category could country x most reliably be placed?
which of the following examples can be described as totalitarian
the soviet union under stalin
as a political system, totalitarianism is:
which of the following represents a challenge to the behavioral revolution's assertion about the relationship between nondemocratic rule and modernization?
modernization's disruptive process can lead to nondemocratic rule
which of the following statements is consistent with the "resource trap" theory
abundant resources often free those in power from the need to tax the people
which of the following best describes the relationship between civil society and nondemocratic regimes?
elimination of civil society by nondemocratic regimes can sometimes encourage populist ideology
bureaucratic authoritarianism typically relies on the close cooperation of which groups?
the military and the state bureaucracy
which of the following best characterized the "Asian Values" argument?
Asia has cultural and religious traditions that encourage conformity and obedience, making it less receptive to democracy
purges are an example of:
which of the following statements about populism is accurate?
populist movements are often led by a charismatic leader
when a system in which individuals outside an organization are brought into beneficial relationship with it, making them dependent in the regime for certain rewards, it is known as:
a system wherein authoritarian regimes sanction a limited number of organizations to represent the public (and restrict the unsanctioned ones) is known as:
which of the following best describes the rule in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of Congo) by the government of Mobutu Sese Seko from 1965 until 1997?
personal rule with increasing reliance on patrimonialism over time
a system in which states co-opt members of the public by providing specific benefits to a person in return for public support is:
countries that appear to have many of the trappings of democracy but restrict the democratic process to a great degree are known as:
illiberal or hybrid regimes
in which of the following ways does clientelism differ from corporatism?
clientelism relies on individual patronage rather than on large organizations
which of the following would be an example of rent-seeking?
giving control of a nationalized industry to supporters of those in power
which of the following statements about one-party rule is accurate?
it is often combined with a corporatist regime
stalin's rule in the soviet union is mostly associated with which of the following concepts?
which of the following statements regarding nondemocratic rule and legitimacy is accurate?
nondemocratic regimes may enjoy the same level of institutionalization as any democratic regime
which of the following characteristics is an illiberal regime likely to have in common with a democratic one?
the executive, legislature, and judiciary are established and have their respective arenas of authority
once considered relatively unusual, military rule became much more common over the past 50 years, particularly in:
Africa and Latin America
which term refers to a military seizure of the government?
which of the following is among the characteristics that have led some to consider Russia to be a bureaucratic authoritarian regime?
the head of government and top rulers came into their positions from the military or security services
which of the following best describes the record of economic growth under military rule?
in some cases of military rule, economic growth has been high, but in many more cases it has led to instability and poor development
Bureaucratic authoritarianism often justifies military rule by asserting that
only technocratic leadership can rise above "irrational" politics
communist countries are examples of which form of authoritarianism?
a nondemocratic regime in which holy texts or religious law form the foundation for its rule would be known as
which of the following is the best example of a country that could be described as a theocracy