35.1 Infectious Disease
Terms in this set (21)
When microorganisms cause physiological changes that disrupt normal body functions
Germ theory of disease
When microorganisms were thought to be "germs"
Rules for identifying the microorganisms that cause a specific disease: the pathogen must always be found in the body of a sick organisms, pathogen must be isolated, when cultured pathogens are injected into a healthy host, it causes the same disease, the injected pathogen must be identical to the original pathogen.
What causes infectious disease?
Infectious diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, "Protists", and parasites.
How are infectious diseases spread?
Some diseases are spread through coughing, sneezing, physical contact, or exchange of body fluids. Some diseases are spread through contaminated water or food. Still other diseases are spread to humans from infected animals.
Any disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans
Carriers that transport the pathogen but usually get sick themselves
Non-living, replicate by inserting their genetic material into a host cell and taking over many of the host's functions
Break down the tissues of an infected organism for food, or release toxins that interfere with normal activity in the host
Cause infections on the surface of the skin, mouth, throat, fingernails, and toenails
Single-celled eukaryotes may infect people through contaminated water and insect bites; they take nutrients from their host
Most parasites that infect humans are wormlike; may enter through the mouth, nose, anus or skin.
Specific recognition, response, and memory
Protein infectious particles: brain problem. Misfolded prion proteins cause normal prion proteins to misfold
Discovered the principles of vaccination, microbial
fermentation and pasteurization.
The first vaccination
Edward Jenner in 1796 followed up his observation that milkmaids who had previously caught cowpox did not later catch smallpox by showing that inoculated cowpox protected against inoculated smallpox.
An organism that lives with another and either benefits or harms it, or neither.
Microorganisms or viruses that cause disease.
An emerging disease based in South America spread by mosquitoes which may cause microcephalus in newborns.
A disease that is widespread globally in many areas of the world.
a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community.