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Acanthocytes are...

Red blood cells with a irregular surface projections; seen with liver disease, portacaval shunts, and splenic tumors

All red blood cells of non-mammalians (birds and reptiles) contain what?


Anemia can be caused by...

Decreased production of erythrocytes, increased destruction or loss of erythrocytes, and decreased hemoglobin

The average red blood cell lifespan in a cat is how long?

Approximately 70 days

Echinocytes are...

Red blood cells with several blunt or pointed projections; seen with metabolic disease - more often a common artifact called crenation

Explain anisocytosis

Meaning there are red blood cells of varying size

Explain MCH

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin

Explain MCHC

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration; weight of hemoglobin

Explain MCV

Mean corpuscular volume; red blood cell size

Explain what anaplasma marginale looks like

Small, dark staining spherical body at the margin of the red blood cell; can confuse with Howell-Jolly bodies but H-J bodies are not usually seen in a large number of cells

Explain what hemobartonella looks like

Very small, round or rod-shaped; can be confused with stain precipitate or Howell-Jolly bodies

The formation of red blood cells is called


The formation of white blood cells is called


Hemobartonella has had a name change, and is now called

Mycoplasma hemofelis

Hemolysis refers to

Destruction of red blood cells

Hyperbilirubin is caused by

excessive red blood cell breakdown and liver disease

If blood is placed in a tube that allows the blood to clot, what is the fluid portion called?


If blood is placed in a tube with anticoagulant, what is the fluid portion that separates from the cells?


If there are more than how many per 100 white blood cells, a corrected total white blood cell count is necessary


In the dog it takes how long for the red blood cells to be made in the bone marrow to circulate?

Approximately 7 days

Platelets function to initiate what?


Poikilocytes are...

Abnormally shaped red blood cells

Red blood cells are also known as


Target cells are a form of leptocyte, which are explained as

Central, rounded area of hemoglobin surrounded by a clear zone, with a dense ring of hemoglobin at the edge. Commonly found with chronic disease process.

True or false, hemobartonella is a common parasite of feline red blood cells


What animal are reticulocytes not seen in?


What are Heinz bodies?

Round structures within the red blood cell which represent oxidized hemoglobin which has precipitated. Seen with acetaminophen toxicity or onion toxicity. May see a few in normal felines.

What are Howell-Jolly bodies?

Cell has a fragment of a non-functional nucleus, normally would be removed by the spleen; commonly seen with feline regenerative anemia, might also seen in a dog that had a splenectomy

What are immature red blood cells called? and how are they different from mature red blood cells?

Reticulocytes; Larger in diameter and darker staining

What are some red blood cell parasites?

Dirofilaria immitis (microfilaria), hemobartonella felis, anaplasma marginale, cytauxzoon felis, babesia species, eperythrozoon species

What are spherocytes?

More intensely stained smaller sphere, more dense

What are the clinical signs of hyperbilirubin?

Mucous membranes take on a yellow color; jaundice, icterus

What are the main two artifacts that we see on blood smears?

Water and stain precipitate

What are the three factors that affect hemoglobin's oxygen affinity?

Blood pH, temperature, and O2 & CO2 concentrations

What are the two types of hemolysis? and which is the most common?

Extravascular and intravascular; extravascular is 90% of hemolysis

What are the two types of reticulocytes that cats have?

Aggregate and punctate

What does a bluish tint indicate?

Young erythrocytes

What does anaplasma marginale do to red blood cells in the disease process?

Early in the disease process, a large number of red blood cells are affected, later see smaller number affected

What does anemia refer to?

A decrease in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood

What does the water artifact appear as on a blood smear?

Moth-eaten appearance

What do red blood cells provide to cells and tissues?


What hormone stimulates normal bone marrow to increase production and release of red blood cells?


What is agglutination?

Grouping of red blood cells in clumps

What is a macrocyte?

A larger red blood cell

What is a microcyte?

A smaller red blood cell

What is anaplasma marginale?

A blood parasite of cattle and wild ruminants

What is another word for a nucleated red blood cell?


What is basophilic stippling?

Aggregations in the red blood cell cytoplasm, bluish granular bodies on the surface of the red blood cell; seen with lead poisoning

What is deoxyemoglobin?


What is dirofilaria immitis?


What is hemobartonella also known as?

Feline infectious anemia

What is hypochromasia?

Increase in central pallor, red blood cell looks more ring-like

What is oxyhemoglobin?


What is polychromasia?

Variation in the color of the red blood cells

What is rouleaux?

Grouping of red blood cells in stacks

What is the average red blood cell lifespan in a dog?

Approximately 110 to 120 days

What is the formation of blood cells called?


When are nucleated red blood cells seen?

In regenerative anemia's and other disease processes

When are reticulocytes seen following anemia?

2-3 days

When are spherocytes seen?

with immune mediated hemolytic anemia

When does crenation happen?

When a blood sample is left at room temperature for 48 hours

When talking about dirofilaria immitits what is microfilaria?

The larvae

When would you use the terms MCV, MCHC, and MCH?

When classifying an anemia

Where can the microfilaria be found on a blood smear?

Sometimes found near the feathered edge; they are the width of a red blood cell

Where does bilirubin come from?

The breakdown of hemoglobin

White blood cells are important to....

Immune function

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