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Red blood cells with a irregular surface projections; seen with liver disease, portacaval shunts, and splenic tumors
Anemia can be caused by...
Decreased production of erythrocytes, increased destruction or loss of erythrocytes, and decreased hemoglobin
Red blood cells with several blunt or pointed projections; seen with metabolic disease - more often a common artifact called crenation
Explain what anaplasma marginale looks like
Small, dark staining spherical body at the margin of the red blood cell; can confuse with Howell-Jolly bodies but H-J bodies are not usually seen in a large number of cells
Explain what hemobartonella looks like
Very small, round or rod-shaped; can be confused with stain precipitate or Howell-Jolly bodies
If blood is placed in a tube with anticoagulant, what is the fluid portion that separates from the cells?
If there are more than how many per 100 white blood cells, a corrected total white blood cell count is necessary
In the dog it takes how long for the red blood cells to be made in the bone marrow to circulate?
Approximately 7 days
Target cells are a form of leptocyte, which are explained as
Central, rounded area of hemoglobin surrounded by a clear zone, with a dense ring of hemoglobin at the edge. Commonly found with chronic disease process.
What are Heinz bodies?
Round structures within the red blood cell which represent oxidized hemoglobin which has precipitated. Seen with acetaminophen toxicity or onion toxicity. May see a few in normal felines.
What are Howell-Jolly bodies?
Cell has a fragment of a non-functional nucleus, normally would be removed by the spleen; commonly seen with feline regenerative anemia, might also seen in a dog that had a splenectomy
What are immature red blood cells called? and how are they different from mature red blood cells?
Reticulocytes; Larger in diameter and darker staining
What are some red blood cell parasites?
Dirofilaria immitis (microfilaria), hemobartonella felis, anaplasma marginale, cytauxzoon felis, babesia species, eperythrozoon species
What are the clinical signs of hyperbilirubin?
Mucous membranes take on a yellow color; jaundice, icterus
What are the three factors that affect hemoglobin's oxygen affinity?
Blood pH, temperature, and O2 & CO2 concentrations
What are the two types of hemolysis? and which is the most common?
Extravascular and intravascular; extravascular is 90% of hemolysis
What does anaplasma marginale do to red blood cells in the disease process?
Early in the disease process, a large number of red blood cells are affected, later see smaller number affected
What hormone stimulates normal bone marrow to increase production and release of red blood cells?
What is basophilic stippling?
Aggregations in the red blood cell cytoplasm, bluish granular bodies on the surface of the red blood cell; seen with lead poisoning
Where can the microfilaria be found on a blood smear?
Sometimes found near the feathered edge; they are the width of a red blood cell
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