APWH 28: Revolutions

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Declaration of Independence
Document that explains the reasons for the American Revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Document that explains the reasons for the French Revolution.
Maximilien Robespierre
Key player in the French Revolution. Led France into the Reign of Terror due to his uncompromising approach to those who disagreed with him.
Reign of Terror
The most violent period of the French Revolution.
Mary Wollstonecraft
Enlightenment leader who believed in women's rights and argued that women should have educational and property rights.
Olympe de Gouges
French Revolutionary who advocated women's rights. Ultimately killed because this stance did not agree with the revolutionary government.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Leader of the revolutionaries in Haiti, who effectively won independence before dying in a French prison.
Miguel Hidalgo
Mexican priest and revolutionary who used the symbolism of the Virgin of Guadalupe to fight for the mestizos and natives in particular.
Simon Bolivar
Revolutionary leader of Latin America (esp. Gran Columbia). Achieved independence from Spain only to ultimately conclude that the area was ungovernable by any democratic means.
Jamaica Letter
Letter written by Simon Bolivar to an English gentleman explaining his thoughts on how Latin America can form a free republic.
coup d'état
A military overthrow of the government.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Crowned himself emperor of France and proceeded to conquer the rest of Europe in the early 1800s.
Napoleonic Codes
Granted many basic Enlightenment-era rights to most Europeans for the first time.
Congress of Vienna/Concert of Europe
European organizations designed to preserve conservative principles and prevent another Napoleon.
universal suffrage
The idea that everyone (or at least every male, in historical context) should have the right to vote.
conservatism
The idea that things should either be preserved as they are, move back to hwo they were, or that change should happen slowly or in a very managed way.
liberalism
The idea that change should happen at its own pace or even be hastened by those in government and social leadership positions.
nationalism
When a nation received one's primary political loyalty.
Zionism
Jewish idea of returning to the ancient Jewish homeland at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea.