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34 terms

Mr. Byvik's Civics : Unit 5 The Judicial System

This set covers all of the vocabulary and questions for Civics SOL: CE.10.
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U.S. Supreme Court
Justices, no jury; appellate jurisdiction with limited original jurisdiction. "The highest court in the land."
U.S. Court of Appeals
Judges, no jury; ONLY appellate jurisdiction.
U.S. District Court
Judge, with or without a jury; original jurisdiction.
Virginia Supreme Court
Justices, no jury; appellate jurisdiction, limited original jurisdiction.
Court of Appeals of Virginia
Judges, no jury; appellate jurisdiction to review decisions of circuit courts.
Circuit Court of VA
Judge, with or without jury; original jurisdiction for felony criminal cases and expensive civil cases; appellate jurisdiction from district courts.
General District Court of VA
Judge, no jury; original jurisdiction for misdemeanors and civil cases involving low dollar amounts.
Juvenile and Domestic Relations Court
Judge, no jury; original jurisdiction in juvenile and family cases.
Judicial Review
The power of the supreme courts of the United States and Virginia to determine if laws and presidential acts are constitutional.
Marbury vs. Madison
Court case which established the power of judicial review.
5th Amendment
Prohibits the national government from acting in an unfair manner. Protects against double jeopardy, self-incrimination, accused persons are entitled to due process.
14th Amendment
States that all U.S. citizens are citizens of the state in which they reside, therefore due process extends to the state courts.
Procedure for criminal cases
1. Accused person may be arrested if the police have probable cause.
2. The accused may be sent to jail or released on bail.
3. Arraignment - probable cause is reviewed, an attorney is appointed for the defendant, and a plea is entered.
4. A court date is set and a trial is conducted.
5. A guilty verdict may be appealed.
Procedure for a civil case
1. The plaintiff files a complaint to recover damages or receive compensation.
2. Cases can be heard by a judge or a jury.
3. Cases can be appealed.
Criminal Case
A court case where someone broke the law.
Due Process
The process by which the government must treat an accused person fairly according to rules established by law.
Jurisdiction
The authority to hear a case.
Misdemeanor
A minor crime for which the penalty is usually a fine.
Juvenile
A person under 18 years old.
Defendant
The party who answers a complaint and defends against it in a court case. The Accused
Probable Cause
A good reason to believe that a suspect was involved in a crime.
Jury
A group of ordinary citizens who hear a court case and decide whether the accused person is innocent or guilty.
Judge or Justice
A person who presides over a court of law.
Plea
The answer of the accused to a criminal charge. Example: guilty, not guilty, no contest.
Plaintiff
An individual or group of people who bring a complaint against another party in a civil case. The Accuser
Appeal
To ask a higher court to review a decision and determine whether justice was done.
Arraignment
A court hearing in which the defendant is formally charged with a crime and enters a plea.
Appellate Jurisdiction
A courts authority to hear an appeal of a decision from another court.
Felony
A serious crime for which the penalty can be imprisonment for more than one year.
Civil Case
A court case involving disputes over money or property between individuals or businesses.
Original Jurisdiction
A court's authority to hear a case first.
The US Constitution
The supreme law of the land.
Brown vs Board of Ed of Topeka KS
Court case ending segregation of schools
Bush vs Gore
Court case in which the 2000 presidential election was decided by the supreme court