• Identifying candidates • Emphasizing selected issues • Writing editorials, creating political cartoons, publishing op-ed pieces • Broadcasting different points of view
effects of rising campaign costs
• require candidates to conduct extensive fund-raising activities • limit opportunities to run for public office • give an advantage to wealthy individuals who run for office • encourage the development of political action committees (PACs) • give issue-oriented special interest groups increased influence.
campaign finance reform
• Rising campaign costs have led to efforts to reform campaign finance laws. • Limits have been placed on the amount individuals may contribute to political candidates and campaigns.
Only citizens who do this may vote in primary and general elections.
qualifications to register to vote in Virginia
• Citizen of the United States • Resident of Virginia and precinct • At least 18 years of age by day of general election
how to register to vote in Virginia
• In person at the registrar's office, at the Division of Motor Vehicles, or at other designated sites • By mail-in application
Voter registration is closed this many days before elections.
factors in predicting which citizens will vote
• Education • Age • Income
reasons why citizens fail to vote
• Lack of interest • Failure to register
The percentage of voters who participate in these elections is usually greater than the percentage of voters who participate in state and local elections.
electoral college process
• A slate of electors for each state is chosen by popular vote. • Most states have a winner-take-all system. • The electors meet to vote for president and vice president.
This aspect of the electoral college system leads to the targeting of densely populated states for campaigning.
Candidates must pay attention to less populated states whose electoral votes may make the difference in these elections.
The number of electors of each state is based on the size of the state's _____ representation, which is based on the state's population.
The requirement for a majority vote to win in the Electoral College favors this type of system.
Media's role in setting the public agenda
- focus attention on selected issues - offer a forum for opposing viewpoints - hold government officials accountable
government officials use the media
to communicate with the public
seeking to influence legislators to introduce or to vote for or against a bill
ways individuals influence public policy
participate in politics, Express opinions, Join Interest groups
ways individuals participate in politics
vote, Campaign, seek office
ways individuals express opinions
- lobby, Demonstrate, write letters
ways interest groups influence public policy
- identify issues -Make political contributions -Lobby Government officials
Local governments may be required to act in response to -
international issues and events
In response to international issues local government may need to -
formulate, adopt and implement public policies
Examples of local policy decisions in reaction to international events may be -
- public health concerns -Public Safety -Economic Development policies -Policies to protect the environment