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AP EH The Great War, Russian Revolution, and Age of Anxiety Terms/IDs
Terms in this set (92)
the Moroccan Crises
two international crises centring on France's attempts to control Morocco and on Germany's concurrent attempts to stem French power
the Balkan Crises ('Balkan Wars')
The Young Turks led by Atatürk (Mustafa Kemal
Pasha) set up a parliamentary gov in the
1 - Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria allied to sucessfully drive the Turks out of the Balkans
2 - Bulgaria was angered that Serbia and Greece had acquired significant territory in Macedonia and thus attacked both countries
3 - between Austria and Serbia became WWI in the summer of 1914
the 'Triple Alliance' (later, the Central Powers)
The alliance of Austria, Germany, and Italy. Italy left the alliance when war broke out in 1914 on the grounds that Austria had launched a war of aggression
the Anglo-French Entente (1904)
Anglo-French agreement that, by settling a number of controversial matters, ended antagonisms between Great Britain and France and paved the way for their diplomatic cooperation against German pressures in the decade preceding World War I (1914-18)
the Dreadnought arms race
At the time, Germany was already beginning to expand her navy, but Britain had an unassailable lead, with hundreds of ships deployed all around the world.
Britain was the only non-aligned power
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
Austrian heir to the throne, assassinated by Serbian "black hand"
the 'Black Hand'
assassinates heir to Austrian throne (Archduke Franz Ferdinand)
the 'blank check'
Austria requests and receives Germany's "blank check," pledging unconditional support if Russia enters the war
describes the Serbian nationalist and irredentist ideology of the creation of a Serb state which would incorporate all regions of traditional significance to Serbs, including regions outside Serbia that are populated by Serbs.
the principle or advocacy of the union of all Slavs or all Slavic peoples in one political organization.
the action of a country or its government preparing and organizing troops for active service
the Schlieffen Plan and Belgian neutrality
Failed German plan calling for a lightning attack through neutral Belgium and quick defeat of France before turning on Russia
First Battle of the Marne
For three days, France in total war. Taxis moved. really close victory for the Allies
Battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes
ended in a German victory over the Russians in the early days of World War I.
Tannenberg was a crushing defeat for Russia, which lost almost an entire army
Battle of the Somme
Great British offensive undertaken in the summer of 1916 in northern France, which showed the mass destruction of modern warfare. lasted until November
Battle of Verdun
unsuccessful German campaign with high death toll 1916. virtually no progress made on either side
Third Battle of Ypres
The attack at Passchendaele was Sir Douglas Haig's attempt to break through Flanders.
the Gallipoli Campaign
(February 1915-January 1916), in World War I, an Anglo-French operation against Turkey, intended to force the 38-mile- (61-km-) long Dardanelles channel and to occupy Constantinople.
Battle of Jutland
the only major encounter between the British and German fleets in World War I, fought in the Skagerrak, an arm of the North Se
Second Battle of the Marne
last large German offensive of World War I.
A war in which distinctions between the soldiers on the battlefield and civilians at home are blurred - government plans and controls economic and social life in order to supply the armies at the front with supplies and weapons
A type of fighting used in WW1 behind trenches, the cost in lives was staggering and territory gains minimal
War Raw Materials Board and the Auxiliary Service Law
Rathenau's direction of rations and distributions of raw materials. Germany failed to tax the war profits of private firms heavily enough
ASL made after battles of Somme and Verdun, work for critical war effort
supported the state wartime military and economic planning, despite their ideological commitments to internationalism and solidarity.
the 'Irish Question'
The Irish Question was a phrase used mainly by members of the British ruling classes from the early 19th century until the 1920s. It was used to describe Irish nationalism and the calls for Irish independence.
the Easter Rising, 1916
was an armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week, April 1916. The Rising was launched by Irish republicans to end British rule in Ireland and establish an independent Irish Republic while the United Kingdom was heavily engaged in the First World War
the Treaty of London
a secret pact between the Triple Entente and the Kingdom of Italy. The treaty was signed in London on 26 April 1915 by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the French Third Republic, the Russian Empire, and the Kingdom of Italy. Its intent was to gain the alliance of Italy against its former allies, including German empire and Austro-Hungary.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Peace treaty signed in March 1918 between the Central Powers and Russia that ended Russian participation in WW1 and ceded Russian territories containing a third of the Russian empire's population to the Central powers
Generals Hindenburg and Ludendorff
heroes of Tannenberg - drove Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg from office, Fatherland party, established a dictatorship. first 'totalitarian society', and a model for future Nazis
Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg
tried to seize control of the government in the Spartacist Uprising in Berlin 1919. Radicals. killed by Free Corps soldiers.
German Revolution of 1918
moderates from the Social Democratic Party and their liberal allies held on to power and established Weimar Republic.
the Lusitania, the 'Sussex Pledge,' and unrestricted submarine warfare
The Sussex Pledge was a promise made by Germany to the United States in 1916, during World War I before the USA entered the war. Early in 1915, Germany had instituted a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, allowing armed merchant ships, but not passenger ships, to be torpedoed without warning.
first served as Prime Minister from 1906 to 1909, and then again from 1917 to 1920. In favour of a total victory over the German Empire, he militated for the restitution of Alsace-Lorraine to France. He was one of the principal architects of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919.
David Lloyd George
As Chancellor of the Exchequer (1908-1915), Lloyd George was a key figure in the introduction of many reforms which laid the foundations of the modern welfare state. His most important role came as the highly energetic Prime Minister of the Wartime Coalition Government (1916-22), during and immediately after the First World War. He was a major player at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 that reordered Europe after the defeat of the Central Powers.
infused his views of morality into his domestic and international policies.
activist foreign policy calling on the nation to promote global democracy. For his sponsorship of the League of Nations.
the Fourteen Points
Wilson's 1918 peace proposal calling for open diplomacy, a reduction in armaments, freedom of commerce and trade, the establishment of the League of Nations, and national self-determination
League of Nations 'mandates'
The plan to allow Britain and France to administer former Ottoman territories, put into place after the end of WW1
the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations
The 1919 peace settlement that ended war between Germany and the Allied powers
A permanent international organization, established during the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, designed to protect member states from aggression and avert future wars
the 'war guilt clause'
An article in the Treaty of Versailles that declared Germany (with Austria) was solely responsible for the war and had to pay reparations equal to all civilian damages caused by fighting
Congress of Berlin (1878)
The Congress of Berlin was a meeting of the representatives of the Great Powers of the time and four Balkan states, aiming at determining the territories of the states in the Balkan peninsula following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78
the Balfour Declaration
A 1917 British statement that declared British support of a National Home for the Jewish People in Palestine
Mustafa Kemal ('Ataturk') and the 'Young Turks'
Turks refused to acknowledge the Allied dismemberment of their country and gradually mounted a forceful resistence.
Lawrence of Arabia and Hussein ibn-Ali
After World War I Hussein refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, in protest at the Balfour Declaration and the establishment of British and French mandates in Syria, Iraq, and Palestine.
L of A: liaison role during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign and the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire during the First World War.
failed to win political independence for the Arabs, as the British backed away from the vague promises they had made during the war
the Duma and the 'Progressive bloc'
program included demands for political and religious amnesty, the abolition of restrictions on nationalities and faiths (Poles, Jews, etc.), and the freedom of trade unions
introduced into the Russian Empire by Tsar Nicholas II in 1906. It was dissolved in 1917 during the Russian Revolution.
The Constitutional Democratic Party, nicknamed the Kadets, was Russia's most important liberal party during the revolutionary era of 1905 to 1921.
emphasized a broad nationalism, national unity, and "state consciousness."
the other Russian Marxist Party
Lenin's radical, revolutionary arm of the Russian party of Marxist socialism, which successfully installed a dictatorial socialist regime in Russia
'peace, land, and bread'
Lenin's way of speaking to the expectations of soldiers, workers, and peasants. boost in popular support.
V.I. Lenin and Leninism
Leninism is the political theory for the organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat, as political prelude to the establishment of socialism
Tsar Nicholas II
His reign saw the fall of the Russian Empire from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse.
a Marxist revolutionary and theorist, a Soviet politician who engineered the transfer of all political power to the Soviets with the October Revolution of 1917, and the founding leader of the Red Army
Tsarina Alexandra and Rasputin
influencing her husband's resistance to the surrender of autocratic authority over the country and her known faith in the Russian mystic, Grigori Rasputin, severely damaged her popularity and that of the Romanov monarchy in its final years. During his absence in the First World War in 1915-1917 she was treated by her spouse as Regent of the Empire
General Lavr Kornilov
Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov was a military intelligence officer, explorer, and general in the Imperial Russian Army during World War I and the ensuing Russian Civil War.
moderate socialist revolutionary who served as head of the Russian provisional government from July to October 1917
the October (November) Revolution
Bolshevik Party seized power in Russia, inaugurating the Soviet regime.
the March (February) Revolution
Unplanned uprisings accompanied by violent street demonstrations March 1917 Petrograd, Russia, that led to the abdication of the tsar and the establishment of a provisional government
the Petrograd Soviet
A huge, fluctuating mass meeting of two to three thousand workers, soldiers, and socialist intellectuals modeled on the revolutionary soviets of 1905
Army Order No. 1
a radical order of the Petrograd soviet that stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers.
the Russian Civil War (Whites v. Reds)
was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin, and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favoring monarchism, capitalism and alternative forms of socialism, each with democratic and antidemocratic variants.
the application of centralised state control during the Russian civil war, in which the Bolsheviks seized grain from peasants, introduced rationing, nationalised all banks and industry, and required everyone to work
the re-established tsarist secret police, which hunted down and executed thousands of real or suspected foes, sowing fear and silencing opposition.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a supranational union of national republics, but its government and economy were highly centralized in a state that was unitary in most respects.
New Economic Policy
The New Economic Policy was an economic policy of Soviet Russia proposed by Vladimir Lenin, who described it as a progression towards "state capitalism" within the workers' state of the USSR. Lenin characterized "state capitalism"
A philosophy that sees meaning in only those beliefs that can be empirically proven, and that therefore rejects most of the concerns of traditional philosophy, from the existence of God to the meaning of happiness, as nonsense
A philosophy that stresses the meaninglessness of existence and the importance of the individual in searching for moral values in an uncertain world
Christian existentialism is a theo-philosophical movement which takes an existentialist approach to Christian theology. The school of thought is often traced back to the work of the Danish philosopher and theologian Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), who some consider the father of existentialism.
theory of special relativity
Albert Einstein's theory that time and space are relative to the observer and that only the speed of light remains constant
Heisenberg's 'uncertainty principle'
asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known
Sigmund Freud and the unconscious/irrational: the id, the ego, and the superego
Freudian terms to describe the three parts of the self and the basis of human behavior, which Freud saw as basically irrational
A label given to the artistic and cultural movements of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which were typified by radical experimentation that challenged traditional forms of artistic expression
the Bauhaus and functionalism
A German interdisciplinary school of fine and applied arts that brought together many leading modern architects, designers, and theatrical innovators
The principle that buildings, like industrial products, should serve as well as possible their purpose, no excessive ornamentation
An artistic movement of the 20s and 30s that attacked all accepted standards of art and behavior and delighted in outrageous conduct
'stream-of-consciousness' in literature
A literary technique, found in works by Virginia Woolf, James Joyce, and others, that uses interior monologue to explore the human psyche
the 'modern girl' (more properly, the 'new woman')
Somewhat stereotypical image of the modern and independent working woman popular in the 20s
Dawes and Young Plans
War reparations agreement that reduced Germany's yearly payments, made payment dependent on economic prosperity, and granted large US loans to promote recovery
John Maynard Keynes and 'countercyclical policy'
theories about how in the short run, and especially during recessions, economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand
policies that acted against the tide of the business cycle: deficit spending when a nation's economy suffers from recession or when recovery is long-delayed and unemployment is persistently high
generally espoused state regulation, rather than state ownership, of the means of production and extensive social welfare programs.
shares common ideological roots with communism but eschews its militancy and totalitarianism.
the 'Lost Generation' in Paris
was the generation that came of age during World War I
a recognition that there was great confusion and aimlessness among the war's survivors in the early post-war years
The Comintern ('Third International')
an international communist organization that advocated world communism
by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and for the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the State.
founded by Lenin, dismantled by Stalin
In the late 19th century, revisionism was used to describe democratic socialist writers such as Eduard Bernstein and Jean Jaurès, who sought to revise Karl Marx's ideas about the transition to socialism and claimed that a revolution through force was not necessary to achieve a socialist society.
The Rhineland and the Ruhr
a period of military occupation of the German Ruhr valley by France and Belgium between 1923 and 1925 in response to the Weimar Republic's failure to continue its reparation payments in the aftermath of World War I.
The 'spirit of Locarno'
The Locarno Treaties were seven agreements negotiated at Locarno, Switzerland, on 5-16 October 1925 and formally signed in London on 1 December, in which the First World War Western European Allied powers and the new states of Central and Eastern Europe sought to secure the post-war territorial settlement, and return normalizing relations with defeated Germany (the Weimar Republic). It also stated that Germany would never go to war with the other countries. Locarno divided borders in Europe into two categories: western, which were guaranteed by Locarno treaties, and eastern borders of Germany with Poland, which were open for revision.
the Kellogg-Briand Pact
a 1928 international agreement in which signatory states promised not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them." Parties failing to abide by this promise "should be denied of the benefits furnished by this treaty." It was signed by Germany, France, and the United States on 27 August 1928, and by most other nations soon after.
Spanish Civil War
took place from 1936 to 1939 and was fought between the Republicans, who were loyal to the democratic, left-leaning and relatively urban Second Spanish Republic in an alliance of convenience with the Anarchists, versus the Nationalists, a falangist, Carlist, and a largely aristocratic conservative group led by General Francisco Franco.
the Weimar Republic and 'coalition government'
between 1919 and 1933
name given to the centre-left to center-right coalition of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the social liberal German Democratic Party (DDP) and the Christian democratic Centre Party, who together had a large majority of the delegates to the Constituent Assembly that met at Weimar in 1919, and were the principal groups that designed the constitution of Germany's Weimar Republic.
Ramsay MacDonald and the Labour Party
a British statesman who was the first Labour Party Prime Minister, leading Labour governments in 1924, 1929-1931 and, having been expelled from the party he had helped to found, a National Government from 1931 to 1935.
British Conservative politician, three times prime minister between 1923 and 1937; he headed the government during the General Strike of 1926, the Ethiopian crisis of 1935, and the abdication crisis of 1936.
the first Socialist (and the first Jewish) premier of France, presiding over the Popular Front coalition government in 1936-37.
the Jazz Age
a period in the 1920s, ending with the Great Depression, in which jazz music and dance styles became popular, mainly in the United States, but also in Britain, France and elsewhere.
The alliance of Great Britain, France, and Russia prior to and during WW1
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