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Terms in this set (15)
How is the concept of acquired immunity ancient?
ex. if you survived the 1st wave of plaque you will not get a re-infection.
Who discovered vaccines?
the bug can NOT infect host, but has all specific microbial patterns that can be targeted by immune system.
What are Vaccines?
VACCINES are nontoxic or greatly attenuated antigens that are injected, ingested or inhaled to induce the specific protective host immune defence without having to go through the disease process.
How to design an ideal vaccine?
1) Where does the body first recognize the pathogen and where does the pathogen localize to? Why? (eg. What cells are exposed to the pathogen+ tailor a response to specific areas where pathogen localize, when you are designing a vaccine examine the tissue specific bioavailability exposure to cells + tailoring a response to a specific area where it localizes).
2) What are the virulence factors possessed by the pathogen? Why? ex. design antibody to exotoxin, flagella, proteases, LPS ( they are all outside of the bacteria so the vaccine target them).
Designing an Ideal Vaccine-
Determine what antigen(s) to use to generate your immune response. What factors should we consider?
ex. flagellin, LPS, elastase. We go for something BROAD, CONSERVED on the surface.
able to INDUCE an immune response ( not all antigens induce an immune response).
part of the antigen that is targeted by the antibody
What is continuous vs. discontinuous epitopes in drug design?
The continuous is easier to generate because it depends on the PRIMARY sequence, while the discontinuous relies on protein folding ( tertiary structures).
It makes an antigen more immunogenic.
- It stimulate, modify or augment the immune response.
- It can also direct the immune system toward a desired response ( cytotoxic or antibody production).
Design a Vaccine for the following bacterial Pathogens:
1)Pathogen 1 produces several exotoxins that can elicit severe disease symptoms ( including death in patients)
2) Pathogen 2 is an intracellular pathogen with multiple surface proteins.
1) inactivate exotics by antibodies, design two types of vaccines ( one that target exotixin+ conserved portion of bacteria).
If I did not want to stimulate a specific subset of immune response, what should i do?
Use of adjuvants will dictate the type of response that will illicit.
Certain individuals refuse to be vaccinated, their children be vaccinated ( ex. MMR causes autism- correlation vs. causation)
How do vaccines function?
Innoculation of Ag, low level of IgM ( antibody) with a booster shot, there is an accelerated + rapid defense response that lasts for days.
Community or Herd Immunity
Remaining Healthy while unvaccinated.
Unvaccinated people in a population that is mostly vaccinated will be protected form outbreak.
Drawbacks? If everyone starts getting unvaccinated everyone will get sick.
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