Sausages

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There are three basic categories of sausages.
Fresh sausages are raw sausages that are typically pan fried, broiled, grilled, baked, or braised before serving.

Cooked sausages are poached or steamed after they are shaped; they may be sliced and served cold or prepared by grilling, baking, or pan frying.

Smoked and dried sausages are cold or hot smoked, then allowed to air-dry in a curing room to the desired texture; they may be prepared for service in the same way as cooked sausages. Sausages that are
Parts of pork
Pork butt
Cut pork into cubes
Is then First step into making sausage
Meat grinder into sausage
Meat grinder parts
When smoking sausages until they are fully cooked, sometimes it is advantageous to gradually raise the temperatures of the smokehouse while smoking
. Start by smoking the sausages in a 120°F/49°C environment for 2 hours, then raise the temperature to 130°F/54°C for 2 hours before finishing the hot-smoking process at 180°F/82°C.
Sausages are made by
grinding raw meats along with salt and spices. This mixture is then stuffed into the natural or synthetic casings. The original "containers" were formed from intestines, stomachs, and other animal parts. In fact, the Italian word for sausages, insaccati, literally means "encased."
certified pork temperatures and time MINIMUM TEMPERATURE MINIMUM FREEZING AND HOLDING TIME
5°F/−15ºC 20 days −
10°F/−23ºC 12 days −
20°F/-29ºC 6 days
Traditionally, sausages have been made from
the tougher cuts of meat from the leg or shoulder. The more exercised the muscle, the more highly developed the flavor. Any tendency toward toughness is eliminated by grinding the meat.
optimal texture in prepared sausages,
use an approximate ratio of 70% meat to 30% fat by weight.
Pork sausages that undergo lengthy smoking or drying procedures but aren't cooked must be made with
certified pork, because it has been treated in a way that destroys the pathogens responsible for trichinosis.
Fat is an integral part of any delicious sausage. While the percentage of fat considered appropriate for a forcemeat might have been as high as 50 percent in earlier formulations, today an average of 25 to 30 percent is generally preferred.
Fat is an integral part of any delicious sausage. While the percentage of fat considered appropriate for a forcemeat might have been as high as 50 percent in earlier formulations, today an average of 25 to 30 percent is generally preferred.
Be sure to weigh salt
, since different salts have differing volume-to-weight relationships.
Sausages that are dried or cold smoked must include
either nitrate or a nitrite-nitrate combination in order to fully and safely cure the sausage. One such curing blend is available for purchase under the brand name of Prague Powder II.
Hot-smoked sausages and fresh sausages
do not require nitrite.
Sugar, dextrose, honey, and various syrups
are added to the curing mixture to mellow the sausage's flavor and make
the finished product moister.
Spices are added to sausage
ground, as whole toasted seeds, or in special blends. Whole spices should be ground before use. When making large batches of spice blends, store them in airtight cans or jars, away from heat, light, and moisture.
Sausage formulas often call for dried herbs.
They should be handled in the same way as dried spices. When fresh herbs are necessary, be sure to rinse and dry them well before chopping. You may substitute fresh herbs for dried herbs, but the taste will be different and you must taste the sample carefully. As a general rule, you will need about two to three times more fresh herbs compared to dried herbs.
Many types of aromatic ingredients may be included in sausage recipes,
including vegetables, wines, and citrus zests. Vegetables, though they may be left raw for some special formulas, are most often cooked. include prepared sauces (such as Tabasco and Worcestershire), powdered onions and garlic, and stock. Highly acidic ingredients such as vinegars should be added with care; too much can give the finished sausage a grainy texture.
following guidelines for equipment preparation
: 1. Make sure the equipment is in excellent condition. Evaluate any machinery you use in the kitchen and consider its functionality and safety as part of a standard checklist. Are the blades sharp? Are all the safety features fully functional? Are the cords and plugs in good repair?

2. Make sure the equipment is scrupulously clean before getting to work. Every part of the equipment must be thoroughly cleaned and sanitized between uses. Cross contamination is a serious problem, especially for foods as highly processed and handled as sausages.

3. Chill any part of the machine that comes into direct contact with the sausage ingredients. Place parts in the freezer or refrigerator, or chill equipment rapidly by placing it in a sink or container of ice water. Remember that if your sausage mixture becomes warm during production, you may need to cool both the mixture and the equipment before continuing. Choose the right tool for the job. Do not overload your equipment. If you do not have equipment large enough to handle bulk recipes, then break the formula down into batches that your equipment can handle without straining. 1. The parts of a meat grinder, from left to right: grinder housing or grinder body, worm, blade, different sizes of plates, collar. 2. Before grinding any meat, submerge all pieces of equipment that will come in direct contact with the meat in ice water to thoroughly chill them. 3. Insert the blade of the grinder with the flat side facing the die so that the meat is properly ground. 1 2 3 5. Assemble the grinder correctly. Be certain that the blade is sitting flush against the die. This cuts the food neatly, rather than tearing or shredding it. Make sure the power is disconnected before assembling or disassembling the grinder.
This is known as progressive grinding.
Some sausages and other forcemeat recipes require that the meat and/or fat be ground through a succession of increasingly smaller plates. usually consist of the ³⁄8-in/9-mm plate, the ¼-in/6-mm plate, and the ¹⁄8-in/3-mm plate. ______ grinding gives a fine, even texture to the forcemeat and makes it easier for the grinder to process the meat down to a fine grind. The meat and/or fat should be near 28° to 30°F/−2° to −1°C so that the meat grinds properly. It may be necessary to chill the meat and/or fat between each plate when they are
Meat grinder disc part for course die
Course die ground meat shape
Progressively ground meats
Stuffing Sausage
1. Meat for fermented sausages must be cured for two to three days before grinding. 2. Once the meat is ground, stuff it into the prepared casing, taking care not to over-or understuff. 3. As the sausage dries, moisture evaporates from its surface and is pulled out from its interior, which tightens the casing and firms up the texture. 4. Once fully dried, the finished sausage should be brightly colored with a smooth, slightly chewy texture.
Sausages produced using the basic grind
Sausages produced using the basic grind method have a medium to coarse texture. When left loose, they are referred to as bulk sausages. Fresh, cooked, smoked, and dried sausages are all produced using the basic grind method.

Grind chilled and diced meats, as well as other ingredients as required by recipe, to the desired texture. Meat should ideally be between 28° and 30°F/−2° and −1°C when it is ground. Meat or other foods should be cut into a size and shape that fits the feed tube. You should not have to force foods through the tube with a tamper. When they are correctly cut, the worm will pull them evenly along without requiring you to exert undue pressure. If you have cut your food properly and it is still sticking to the sides of the feed tube, you may need to "coax" the pieces along. If you discover that the products are not flowing smoothly through the


grinder, stop immediately. This is a sign that the meat is being squeezed and torn, rather than cut cleanly. Disassemble the grinder unit, remove any obstructions, and reassemble the grinder properly. 2. Mix the ground sausage meat(s) on low speed for 1 minute, then on medium speed for 15 to 30 seconds, or until it becomes homogeneous. Once the sausage is properly ground, it should be mixed just long enough to evenly distribute the fat and lean components, as well as the spices and other seasonings. The process of mixing also continues to draw out the myosin, water-soluble proteins responsible for the finished texture of the sausage. Do not allow the finished forcemeat to sit for more than a few minutes after grinding and mixing or it will not fill the casings properly and will have too many air pockets under the surface of the casing.
Ingredients
Fermented sausages are typically made from beef or pork, water (60 to 70 percent of the weight of the meat), salt, curing agents such as nitrate and nitrite, and sugars such as dextrose and sucrose. Often a starter is added to the mixture (especially in semidry sausage) in order to increase the amount of friendly bacteria present that will carry out the fermentation process in the meat. It is also important to maintain a proper moisture ratio in the sausage because excess water promotes an environment in which spoilage-causing bacteria can grow. The salt acts to help break down the proteins and add flavor, and has antimicrobial properties, but if there is too much added, it will slow fermentation. The sugar acts as food for the organisms required for fermentation.
Emulsion sausages such as
frankfurters and mortadella are made from a basic mixture referred to as 5-4-3 forcemeat, which reflects the ratio of ingredients: 5 parts trimmed raw meat to 4 parts fat (pork jowl fat) to 3 parts water (in the form of ice) by weight.
To make emulsion sausages:
1. Cure the meat and then grind through the fine die. Meats should be trimmed of any gristle, sinew, or connective tissue. Add the cure mix, tossing to coat the meat evenly. The cured meat is ground through the fine plate of the meat grinder and must be kept very cold while grinding the fat. The meat and the fat should be kept separate at this point.

Grind the chilled fatback through the fine die. The fat (jowl fat is typical) may be partially frozen after it is cubed. Grind it through a fine grinder plate and keep the ground fat well chilled until needed. 3. Chop together the ground meat and crushed ice and process until the temperature drops to below 30°F/−1°C. Place the meat in the bowl of a high-speed chopper or processor. If the chopper or processor is not powerful enough, a proper emulsion will not form. Add the ice on top of the meat and start to process the mixture. Process until the temperature first drops below 30°F/−1°C and then begins to climb up. 4. Add the ground fat to the meat when the temperature reaches 40°F/4°C. Check the temperature frequently to be sure that the mixture is within the desired temperature range. The fat is added just
It is essential to keep the meat extremely cold,
if not nearly frozen. The meat should be between 28° and 30°F/−2° and −1°C and the fat should be between 5° and 10°F/−15° and −23°C.
After grinding, the only step left is
to stuff and smoke the sausage if desired. However, the sausages must be stuffed properly. Understuffing the sausages will produce air pockets, and overstuffing the sausages may cause ruptures.
Finnished emulsion sausage
1. Working over ice, grind the chilled meat and fatback separately through the fine die of a meat grinder. 2. Combine the meat and ice and blend continuously until the mixture drops below 30ºF/-1ºC. 3. Once the meat and ice mixture has risen up to 40ºF/4ºC after continuous mixing, add the ground fatback and continue mixing. 4. The finished emulsion sausage will have a homogeneous and almost spongy texture.
the humidity is too low
, the surface of the sausage dries out faster than the moisture can be drawn from within the sausage and the casing effectively forms a hard shell through which no moisture can escape (this
Emulsion
sausages such as frankfurters and mortadella are made from a basic mixture referred to as 5-4-3 forcemeat, which reflects the ratio of ingredients: 5 parts trimmed raw meat to 4 parts fat (pork jowl fat) to 3 parts water (in the form of ice) by weight.
To make emulsion sausages
: 1. Cure the meat and then grind through the fine die. Meats should be trimmed of any gristle, sinew, or connective tissue. Add the cure mix, tossing to coat the meat evenly. The cured meat is ground through the fine plate of the meat grinder and must be kept very cold while grinding the fat. The meat and the fat should be kept separate at this point. emulsion sausages: 1. Cure the meat and then grind through the fine die. Meats should be trimmed of any gristle, sinew, or connective tissue. Add the cure mix, tossing to coat the meat evenly. The cured meat is ground through the fine plate of the meat grinder and must be kept very cold while grinding the fat. The meat and the fat should be kept separate at this point.

2. Grind the chilled fatback through the fine die. The fat (jowl fat is typical) may be partially frozen after it is cubed. Grind it through a fine grinder plate and keep the ground fat well chilled until needed. 3. Chop together the ground meat and crushed ice and process until the temperature drops to below 30°F/−1°C. Place the meat in the bowl of a high-speed chopper or processor. If the chopper or processor is not powerful enough, a proper emulsion will not form. Add the ice on top of the meat and start to process the mixture. Process until the temperature first drops below 30°F/−1°C and then begins to climb up. 4. Add the ground fat to the meat when the temperature reaches 40°F/4°C. Check the temperature frequently to be sure that the mixture is within the desired temperature range. The fat is added just
at this point to form a good emulsion with the lean meat. The mechanical mixing action, as well as the friction created by the coarse ice and the effect of the salt, produces a light, almost spongy texture. 5. Add the nonfat dry milk (and any remaining seasonings) when the temperature reaches 45° to 50°F/7° to 10°C. Continue to process the forcemeat until it reaches 58°F/14°C. This process
proper internal temperatures for emulsion sausages
Fish 145°F/63°C
Pork 150°F/66°C
Beef and veal 150°F/66°C
Lamb 150°F/66°C
Game 150°F/66°C
Poultry (including poultry liver) 165°F/74°C
Usually the garnish item
is diced and added to the forcemeat after it has been tested and adjusted. Cheeses, vegetables, cured or smoked meats, nuts, and dried fruits are all examples
Sausage Shaping
Sausage meat may be used in bulk (loose) form, made into patties, or stuffed into natural or synthetic casings and then formed into links, loops, spirals, or other special shapes.
Various types of casings
, both natural and synthetic, are available today.
Synthetic casings
are impermeable casings that may be made from a variety of food-grade materials (including collagen, plastic, paper, and wood pulp), some edible and some not. They may be colored, lined with herbs, or netted. They offer the advantage of a gas and moisture barrier while maintaining the appearance of an uncoated fibrous casing. One advantage to synthetic casing for commercial use is that a standard amount is required to fill each one; therefore the sausage-stuffing process is more uniform and efficient. Sausages made with artificial casings also have a longer shelf life, decreased product moisture loss, and increased microbiological protection
Natural casings
are made from the intestines and stomach of sheep, hogs, and
Natural casings
used for fresh sausage are washed, scraped, treated, and graded for size and condition, then salted, packaged, and shipped in brine or propylene glycol for preservation. Although they are less uniform in size than synthetic casings, natural casings are more traditional in appearance and texture—they provide that special snap and tender bite that is highly demanded by today's knowledgeable consumers.
Beef casings
are made from various parts of the intestines: middle, round, and bung. The diameter of each type of casing varies. Individual links are typically made from lamb, sheep, or hog casings. Larger sausages are made using beef middles or bungs. (See Casing Chart on page 265.)
Natural Casing & Synthetic Casing
Preparing Natural Casing
1. Natural casings, clockwise from upper right: beef bung, beef middle, beef round, sheep, and hog. 2. Synthetic casings, left to right: nonporous and nonedible synthetic casing, porous and edible synthetic casing.
preparing natural casings
1. Rewind the casings and store covered in salt. Lay out the casings and remove any knots. Form into bundles of the required length. If you will be holding the casings for a few days, store them covered with salt.

2. Before using the casings, rinse them thoroughly in cool water. Force the water through the casing to flush out the salt. Repeat this step as often as necessary to remove all traces of salt and any other impurities. 3. Cut the casing into lengths if necessary (consult specific recipes). Tie a bubble knot in one end of the casing.
Sheep, hog, beef Casing
Casing Chart
SHEEP CASINGS
ITEMS SIZE LENGTH CAPACITY COMMENTS/USES Sheep casing 0.7 in/18 mm and less 100 yd/91 m per hank 38 to 41 lb/17.23 to 18.59 kg Cocktail franks Sheep casing 0.95 to 1.02 in/24 to 26 mm (4 ft per lb) 100 yd/91 m per hank 60 to 64 lb/27.21 to 29.04 kg Pork sausage, frankfurters, andouille Sheep casing 1.1 in/28 mm and up 100 yd/91 m per hank 65 to 70 lb/29.48 to 31.75 kg Hot dogs, wieners, Italian country sausage
HOG CASINGS Hog casing
(small intestine) 1.26 to 1.38 in/ 32 to 35 mm (2 ft. per lb) 100 yd/91 m per hank 105 to 115 lb /47.63 to 52.16 kg Country-style and pork sausage, large frankfurters, pepperoni Hog middles (middle of intestine) 4 in/10 cm 13 ft/3.3 m (27 ft/6.9 m per set) 100 to 125 lb/ 45.35 to 56.69 kg Blood sausages, sopressata Hog bung (end) 2 in/5 cm and up 4 ft/1.2 m long 4 to 8 lb/1.8 kg to 3.62 kg Liver sausage, Braunschweiger Sewed hog bungs 4 in/10 cm 36 in/91 cm long 8 1 ⁄2 to 9 1 ⁄2 lb/ 3.86 to 4.31 kg Salami, liverwurst BEEF CASINGS Beef round (tight curl) 1.68 to 1.81 in/ 43 to 46 mm 100 ft/33.52 m per set 75 to 80 lb/34.02 to 36.28 kg (15 feet per lb) Ring liver, ring bologna,
BEEF CASINGS
Beef round (tight curl) 1.68 to 1.81 in/ 43 to 46 mm 100 ft/33.52 m per set 75 to 80 lb/34.02 to 36.28 kg (15 feet per lb) Ring liver, ring bologna, kielbasa sausage, blood sausage, Mettwurst Holsteiner Beef middle (large intestine) 2.36 to 2.56 in/ 60 to 65 mm 57 ft/17.37 m per set 70 to 80 lb (9 feet per lb) Lyoner-style sausages and other types of bologna, dry and semidry cervelats, dry and cooked salami, kishka (stuffed derma), veal sausage Beef bung 4.72 in/120 mm 23 to 27 in/58 to 69 cm 17 to 20 lb/7.71 to 9.07 kg Capocolla, large bologna, Lebanon bologna, cooked salami
Stuffing the Casing
stuffing the casing description
The following describes the procedure for filling sausage casings using a sausage-stuffing machine. 1. Assemble and fill the sausage stuffer properly. Keep the nozzle of your stuffer as well as the worktable lubricated with a bit of water to prevent the casing from sticking and tearing as you work. Be sure that all parts of the sausage stuffer that will come in contact with the forcemeat are clean and chilled. Fill the stuffer with the sausage meat, tamping it down well to remove any air pockets. 2. Press the sausage into the prepared casing. Gather the open end of the casing over the nozzle of the sausage stuffer. Press the sausage into the casing (if you are using a hand stuffer or piping the sausage into the casing, slide the open end over the nozzle of the hand stuffer or over the tip of the pastry bag). Support the casing as the forcemeat is expressed through the nozzle and into the casing. 3. Twist or tie the sausage into the appropriate shape. If the sausage is to be made into links, use either of the following methods: press the casing into links at the desired intervals and then twist the link in alternating directions for each link, or tie the casing with twine at the desired intervals. Larger sausages should be secured with a second bubble knot, to allow the sausage to expand as it cooks. After the sausage has been formed into
Stuffing the casing pic
1. Having fitted the casings onto the end of the feeder tube, begin stuffing them by slowly drawing the casing off the feeder tube as the forcemeat is extruded. 2. Once the casings have been completely filled and tied off, section off the links by rolling segments and securing them with butcher's twine. 3. Inspect the links for any air bubbles trapped inside the casing and remove them with a teasing needle. 4. The size of a casing will vary depending on what animal it comes from; pictured clockwise from top, mortadella stuffed in beef bung, kielbasa stuffed in beef middle, smoked turkey and apple breakfast sausage stuffed in sheep casing, and chorizo stuffed in hog casing.
Breakfast Sausage
yield: 11 lb/4.99 kg bulk; 85 links (2 oz/57 g each)
10 lb/4.54 kg boneless pork butt, cubed (70% lean, 30% fat)

seasonings
1 3 ⁄4 oz/50 g salt
3 ⁄4 oz/21 g ground white pepper
2 1 ⁄2 tbsp/9 g poultry seasoning
16 floz/480 mL ice-cold water
42 ft/12.80 m sheep casings, rinsed (optional)


1. Toss the pork butt with the combined seasonings. Chill well, until nearly frozen.
2. Grind through the medium plate (¼ in/6 mm) of a meat grinder into a mixing bowl over an ice bath.
3. Mix on low speed with mixer's paddle attachment for 1 minute, gradually adding water.
4. Mix on medium speed for 15 to 20 seconds, or until the sausage mixture is sticky to the touch.
5. Make a test. Adjust seasoning and consistency before shaping into patties, cylinders, or filling casings and shaping into individual links 5 in/13 cm long.
6. Pan fry, bake, grill, or broil the sausage to an internal temperature of 150°F/66°C, or refrigerate for up to 3 days.
Sweet Italian Sausage
yield: 11 lb/4.99 kg bulk; 44 links (4 oz/113 g each)

10 lb/4.54 kg boneless pork butt, cubed (70% lean, 30% fat)

seasonings
3 1 ⁄2 oz/99 g salt
1 oz/28 g dextrose
1 oz/28 g coarse-ground black pepper
1 oz/28 g whole fennel seeds
1 ⁄4 oz/7 g sweet pimentón
16 floz/480 mL ice-cold water
23 ft/7.01 m hog casings, rinsed

1. Toss the pork butt with the combined seasonings. Chill well, until nearly frozen.
2. Grind through the coarse plate (³⁄8 in/9 mm) of a meat grinder into a mixing bowl over an ice bath.
3. Mix on low speed for 1 minute, gradually adding water.
4. Mix on medium speed for 15 to 20 seconds, or until the sausage mixture is sticky to the touch. Make a test. Adjust seasoning and consistency before shaping into links.
5. Stuff into prepared casings and twist into links 5 in/13 cm long. Cut into individual links.
6. Pan fry, bake, grill, or broil the sausage to an internal temperature of 150°F/66°C, or wrap and refrigerate for up to 3 days. » VARIATIONS HOT ITALIAN SAUSAGE: Replace the fennel seeds and sweet pimentón with 4 oz/113 g of the Hot Italian Sausage Blend (page 641). ITALIAN SAUSAGE WITH CHEESE: Grind 2 lb/907 g cubed provolone cheese, 1 lb/454 g cubed Parmesan cheese, and 2 oz/57 g chopped parsley along with the pork in step 2. This recipe makes approximately 50 links weighing 4 oz/128 g each. Or cut the casings into 15-in/38-cm lengths and coil into a spiral as shown on page 267. Secure the spiral with a skewer 6 in/15 cm long and bake or broil. LOW-FAT ITALIAN SAUSAGE: Trim all the exterior fat from the pork butt. Grind 2 lb/907 g of wellcooked rice pilaf along with the pork in step 2. This sausage may be seasoned as desired with sweet or hot spice blends.