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Cooper Ch. 27
Terms in this set (26)
We tend to assign causal status to events that immediately precede behavior, and when causal variables are not readily apparent in the immediate, surrounding environment, the tendency to turn to internal causes is strong.
Hypothetical constructs such as willpower and drive are explanatory fictions that bring us no closer to understanding the behaviors they claim to explain and lead to circular reasoning.
Skinner (1953) conceptualized self-control as a two-response phenomenon: The controlling response affects variables in such a way as to change the probability of the other, the controlled response.
We define self-management as the personal application of behavior change tactics that produces a desired change in behavior.
Self-management is a relative concept. A behavior change program may entail a small degree of self-management or be totally conceived, designed, and implemented by the person.
Although self-control and self-management appear interchangeably in the behavioral literature, we recommend that self-management be used in reference to a person acting in some way in order to change his subsequent behavior.
- Self-control implies that the ultimate control of behavior lies within the person, but the causal factors for "self-control" are to be found in a person's experiences with his environment.
- Self-control "seems to suggest controlling a [separate] self inside or [that there is] a self inside controlling external behavior"
- Self-control is also used to refer to a person's ability to "delay gratification" by responding to achieve a delayed, but larger or higher quality reward instead of acting to obtain an immediate, less valuable reward.
Four uses of self-management are to:
- live a more effective and efficient daily life,
- break bad habits and acquire good ones,
- accomplish difficult tasks,
- achieve personal lifestyle goals
Advantages and benefits of learning and teaching self-management skills include the following:
- self-management can influence behaviors not accessible to external change agents.
- external change agents often miss important instances of behavior
- self-management can promote the generalization and maintenance of behavior change
- a small repertoire of self-management skills can control many behaviors
- people with diverse abilities can learn self-management skills
- some people perform better under self-selected tasks and performance criteria
- people with good self-management skills contribute to more efficient and effective group environments
- teaching students self-management skills provides meaningful practice for other areas of the curriculum
- self-management is an ultimate goal of education
- self-management benefits society
- self-management helps a person feel free
- self-management feels good
Antecedent-based self-management tactics feature the manipulation of events or stimuli antecedent to the target (controlled) behavior, such as the following:
- manipulating motivating operations to make a desired (or undesired) behavior more (or less) likely
- providing response prompts
- performing the initial steps of a behavior chain to ensure being confronted later with a discriminative stimulus that will evoke the desired behavior
- removing the materials required for an undesired behavior
- limiting an undesired behavior to restricted stimulus conditions
- dedicating a specific environment for a desired behavior
Self-monitoring is a procedure whereby a person observes and responds to, usually by recording, the behavior he is trying to change.
Originally developed as a method of clinical assessment for collecting data on behaviors that only the client could observe, self-monitoring evolved into the most widely used and studied self-management strategy because it often results in desired behavior change.
Self-monitoring is often combined with goal setting and self-evaluation. A person using self-evaluation compares her performance with a predetermined goal or standard.
Self-monitoring is often part of an intervention that includes reinforcement for meeting either self- or teacher-selected goals.
It is difficult to determine exactly how self-monitoring works because the procedure necessarily includes, and is therefore confounded by, private events (covert verbal behavior); it often includes either explicit or implicit contingencies of reinforcement.
Children can be taught to self-monitor and self-record their behavior accurately by means of a faded matching technique, in which the child is rewarded initially for producing data that match the teacher's or parent's data. Overtime the child is required to match the adult's record less often, eventually monitoring the behavior independently.
Accuracy of self-monitoring is neither necessary nor sufficient to achieve improvement in the behavior being monitored.
Suggested guidelines for self-monitoring are as follows:
- provide materials that make self-monitoring easy
- provide supplementary cues or prompts
- self-monitor the most important dimension of the target behavior
- self-monitor early and often, but do not interrupt the flow of a desired behavior targeted for increase
- reinforce accurate self-monitoring
As a technical term, self-reinforcement (as also, self-punishment) is a misnomer. Although behavior can be changed by self-administered consequences, the variables influencing the controlling response make such self-management tactics more than a straightforward application of operant reinforcement.
Self-administered contingencies analogous to positive and negative reinforcement and positive and negative punishment can be incorporated into self-management programs.
When designing self-management programs involving self-administered consequences, a person should:
- select small, easy-to-deliver consequences
- set a meaningful but easy-to-meet criterion for reinforcement
- eliminate "bootleg reinforcement"
- if necessary, put someone else in control of delivery consequences
- use the least complicated and intrusive contingencies that will be effective
Self-instruction (talking to oneself) can function as controlling responses (verbal mediators) that affect the occurrence of other behaviors.
Habit reversal is a multiple-component treatment package in which clients are taught to self-monitor their unwanted habits and interrupt the behavior chain as early as possible by engaging in a behavior incompatible with the problem behavior.
Systematic desensitization is a behavior therapy treatment for anxieties, fears, and phobias, that involves substituting one behavior, generally muscle relaxation, for the unwanted behavior - the fear and anxiety. Self-directed systematic desensitization involves developing a hierarchy of situations from the least to the most fearful and then learning to relax while imagining these anxiety-producing situations, first the least fearful situation, then the next fearful one, and so on.
Massed practice, forcing oneself to perform an undesired behavior again and again, can decrease the future frequency of the behavior.
Following are six steps in designing and implementing a self-management program:
Step 1: specify a goal and define the behavior to be changed
Step 2: begin self-monitoring the behavior
Step 3: create contingencies that will compete with natural contingencies
Step 4: go public with the commitment to change behavior
Step 5: get a self-management partner
Step 6: continually evaluate and redesign the program as needed
The most fundamental principle of self-management is that behavior changes behavior.
Sets found in the same folder
Cooper Chapter 26
ABA Chapter 27, Cooper et. al,. 2007, 2nd edition
Advanced ABA-Chapter 26
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