Future Of Work 1510
Terms in this set (47)
is defined as a sense of unity or an agreement between people with a common interest. For example, a group of students protesting against GM foods being served in the cafeteria. Each member remaining constant in what they want done and how they do it.
pro's of being part of a union. These advantages include Job security, meaning you cannot be fired for no reason and negotiation options for things such as wages, health and safety issues, benefits and working conditions.
union that represents employees who share the same skills or perform similar tasks. This term is still used in the case of workers who may work in different industries for example electricians and plumbers.
labour union that consists of workers in many different trades within one industry for example, employees in the trades.
a group of unions that look deeper into the basic goals of unions and try to reform many of the aspects of the workplace. They try to appeal to the needs of union members that are not economic and may be more personal.
the proportion of paid workers who are union members" which basically means, the number of employees who are unionized verses aren't.
Freedom of Association
the freedom and ability to join or leave a group/organization to an individual's discretion. In terms of work, this allows workers to band together to create or join a union. A workplace cannot keep employees from using a union to protect them
the negotiation between employers and workers to regulate things like salary/wages, benefits, working conditions, and more. In some cases, unions work on behalf of the workers to bargain with the employer. If a union is involved, this process normally ends in workers benefitting in some way.
the procedure involved with the collective bargaining process. This occurs when an employee(s) has a complaint about something in the workplace, like unsafe work conditions. The employee may wish to speak with an HR or union representative before writing a letter of complaint to the workplace to receive consultation and assistance. Then, the employee or union will send the letter to the workplace, which has 21 days to make a decision and write a letter in response. If the employee is not satisfied with this decision, he, she or they may be able to take it to a federal court for resolution.
the written negotiation and agreement between an employer and a worker(s)/union that regulates working conditions. This occurs after collective bargaining, and usually results in some sort of success for the workers.
the designation that someone earns to professionally and legally work in specific fields or careers. It is necessary in regulated jobs to ensure that a person is qualified to perform the job, as unqualified people may cause harm to people or things or perform unethical/ill-informed actions. Examples of careers that require certification are doctors, teachers, and lawyers.
Boarder based bargaining
the aim of trade/labour unions to reach a collective agreement that covers all workers in a sector of the economy, rather than individual firms. Countries with more broader-based bargaining usually have more unions than countries without.
Replacement workers hired during a strike
Active Labor Market Policies
A Government program that intervenes in the labor market to help the unemployed find work. Many of these programs grew out of earlier public works projects designed to combat wide spread unemployment in the developed world during the interwar period
There are 3 main characteristics
Public employment services, such as job centers and labor exchanges, help the unemployed improve their job search effort by disseminating information on vacancies and by aiding with interviewer skills and writing a curriculum vitae.
Training schemes, such a classes and apprenticeships, help the unemployed improve their vocational skills and hence increase their employability
Employment subsidies, either in the public or private sector, directly create jobs for the unemployed. These are typically short-term measures which are designed to allow the unemployed to build up work experience and prevent skill atrophy
Mutual assistance in working towards a common goal.
An economy in which there is a blend of economic systems; individuals and the government share in the decision-making process.
governments protect the consumer from industrial interests.
it combines full market economy and command economy
private ownership of property
taxes are collected and use by the government
Advantages: Economic freedoms to choose, everyone has a say in economy, protection for the consumer and companies
over production or under causes shortages, irrationally of buying
consumer buys useless products.
Businesses operated by a non-profit organization with the dual purpose of generating income by selling a product of service in the market place and creating social, environmental or cultural value.
In an economic democracy workers own the enterprise through cooperative, social enterprise and public or community ownership.
Public Enterprise or Crown Cooperation
Enterprises owned by the governments created to supply crucial services, often when private sector could not or should not. (e.g. natural monopolies, public safety.) Operate at arms-length from government to be more sufficient
Occurs when assets or money rapidly flow out of a country, due to an event of economic consequence. Such events could be an increase in taxes on capital or capital holders or the government of the country defaulting on its debt that disturbs investors and causes them to lower their valuation of the assets in that country, or otherwise to lose confidence in its economic strength.
A person who chooses to receive the benefits of a "public good" without contributing to paying the costs of producing those benefits.
problem is a market failure that occurs when people take advantage of being able to use a common resource, or collective good, without paying for it. Goods and services such as national defense, metropolitan police presence, flood control systems, access to clean water, sanitation infrastructure, libraries and public broadcasting services are able to be obtained.
a commodity or service that is provided without profit to all members of a society, either by the government or a private individual or organization
a feature of Canadian labor law, originating in 1946 requiring workers covered by collective bargaining contracts to pay union dues - whether or not those workers are union members. The Formula was a victory for unions struggling for recognition and security after the Second World War, and became a standard part of labor contracts, and union power, in the decades that followed.
is not supported by profit. So it doesn't have to compete for our dollars. Instead, the uses our tax dollars for funded services so we pay for these programs no matter how much or how little we use them. The government decides how our tax dollar should be spent examples: educational bodies, health care bodies, police and prison services, and local and central government bodies and their departments.
made up of business and corporations owned by people. includes malls, grocery stores and your local diner. To earn profit in business must earn our money by offering us products and services that we want or need. When business have to compete for the same dollar, the prices goes down because no one wants to pay twice as much on one store if you can get the exact same pair cheaper at another store.
Way of administratively organizing large numbers of people who need to work together. Organizations in the public and private sector, including universities and governments, rely on to function. The term means "rule by desks or offices," a definition that highlights the often impersonal character. setting up a helps ensure that thousands of people work together in compatible ways by defining everyone's roles within a hierarchy. The job of is to implement government policy, to take the laws and decisions made by elected officials and put them into practice.
Frederick Winslow Taylor published in 1911. Described the application of the scientific method to the management of workers, and how it could improve productivity. Four principals:
1. Replace guesswork methods with a scientific study of the tasks.
2. Select, train, and develop each worker rather than leaving them to train themselves.
3. Ensure that the scientifically developed methods are being followed.
4. Make sure the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks.
These principles were implemented in many factories, often increasing productivity by a factor of three or more. Henry Ford applied Taylor's principles in his automobile factories, and families even began to perform their household tasks based on the results of time and motion studies.
Gases that trap heat in the sun. The gases act like a blanket absorbing heat from the sun causing the planet to be warmer than usual. Small changes in the gases can lead to big changes in the earth's climate. The reason for the increases due to human activities such as burning of fossil fuels (oil, gasoline, coal, and natural gas) and deforestation.
imposed on polluters who dump waste into the air resulting them to pay a price. Some advantages is that it is an incentive for cleaner operations. Also it is a pool of revenue that is used to help the industry find cleaner alternatives. Disadvantages of Carbon tax is that it is difficult to impose and that it must increase exponentially in order to see an impact.
Cap and Trade
Creates a market that taxes carbon emissions that exceed the limit offers credits for people who have not met their limits. Governments are able to sell or auction credits to industries that need more credits. Advantages is that it offers market - based incentives that appeal to the industry and it postpones or avoids having to make hard political decisions. Disadvantages very complex and hard to administer therefore causing it to lose credibility as an effective option.
big steps is needed in order for change to happen.
meeting out energy needs in new ways which results in the reduction of demand and consumption of fossil fuels. The advantages off mitigation is that it allows consumers to help and avoids the political roadblocks imposed by big oil, investors and regional interests. Disadvantages of mitigations is that it depends on consumers to make expensive investments. Also mitigation depends on the governments to make expensive investments. A long term solution that does not curb the rapid development of the Alberta Tar Sands.
A form of social security in which all citizens or residents of a country regularly receive an unconditional sum of money, either from a government or some other public sector
An arrangement which involves workers making decisions sharing responsibility and authority in the workplace
Span of Control
Area of activity or number of functions, people, or things for which an individual or organization is responsible
Term used to describe the system of mass production that was pioneered in the early 20th century.
Alteration of behaviour by the subjects of a study due to their awareness of being observed.
Belief in or advocacy of change by degrees.
Quality of Working life
Used to describe the broader job-related experience an individual has.
High performance work systems
Set of management practices that attempt to create an environment with an organization where the employee has greater involvement and responsibility.
Group of Employees representing a workforce in discussions with their employers.
Cooperation between management and workers in decision-making, especially by the representation of workers on boards and directors.
National Carbon Plan
Any Job or self-employment that genuinely contributes to a more sustainable world. It is the coming together of a company or organization with an individual motivated and capable of performing the role.
Economy that aims to reduce environmental risks. Aims for sustainable development.
Action or process of selling of subsidiary business interests or investments
Sternness or severity or manner or attitude.
State or experience of being isolated from a group or an activity to which one should belong or in which one should be involved.
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