87 terms

IB Psychology

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Mirror Neurons
Allow you to feel empathy, mimic other behaviors shaping our interest. Strong foundation in the social learning theory
Brain Plasticity
The brains ability to adapt and change after a traumatic event or as a result of our environment
Localization of Functioning
The idea that different parts of the brain do different things
Phantom Limb Syndrome
When a person still feels pain in a part of the body that is no longer there
Visual Neglect
One side of vision is no longer working well, one neural line damaged
Brain Development
The process the brain goes through as it grows
Capgras Delusion
When you don't believe the people around you are who they really are (David does not believe his mom is his real mom but a fake). Messages that were being sent to the temporal lobe cortex does not receive the emotional response needed because the pathway to that center is cut.
Blind Sightness
Neuroscientist: C. Blakemore
To detect things around you, but not be aware. Your vision is not exactly seeing. (can see to one side, but is blind to anything on the other side)
Cast study participant: Graeme Young
The Three principles at the biological level of analysis
1: The Nervous of and Endocrine systems drive and shape human behavoir.
2: there are human and animal correlates, making animal research valid
3: Genetic factors influence human behavior
Prized Methodology studies (biological)
Case studies, correlational studies, observational studies,
experimental studies
Case studies
Research tool that allows you to investigate a behavior or an event that is rare, or a-typical
Correlational studies
Allows individuals to examine the likely hood of certain factors, and indicative of other behaviors (or how they relate)
Observational Studies
Examining human behavior by analyzing, observing, and recording
MRI
Magnetic Resonance Imaging; test that uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to make pictures of organs and structures within the body
FMRI
Function Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Neuro-imaging procedure using MRI technology that measure brain activity by detecting blood flow
MEG
Magnetoencephalography; a functional neuroimaging technique for mapping brain activity by recording magnetic fields produced by electrical currents occurring naturally in the brain, using very sensitive magnetometers.
CT
Computerized Tomography; Shoots X-ray beams to all parts of the body, more detail with internal pictures. That monitors growth (stages of cancer)
EEG
Electro-Electroencephalography; electric recording of brain activity
PET
(Positron Emission Tomography Scan), is an imaging test that allows your doctor to check for diseases in your body
Cognition Definition
How you internalize your environment and the mental processes
4 things that impact memory
1. Sensation and perception
2. Language
3. Thinking
4. Learning
Basic Cognitive Principles of Analysis
1. Mental processes and mental representations guide and shape human behavior
2. Mental processes can and should be scientifically studied
3. Social and cultural forces affect mental processes
Prizes Methodology (cognitive)
1. Interviews
2. Case Studies
3. Experimentation
Methodology
Research tools or the means by which we investigate
Assumption
Certain beliefs we think to be true without needing proof
Principle
A foundational value
Social Desirability
An individual feeling pressured to conform with society's norm, beliefs, and values
Hawthorne Effect
Participants try to perform in a way that they think meets the expectation of the researchers
Screw you effect
Participants act in a way that might sabotage the researchers aims
Demand Characteristics
Participants act according to the nature of the study
Functions of the Nervous System
-communication center
-Interprets all communications and delivers it throughout the body
-regulated internal organs, and bodily functions
Central Nervous System
Contains brain and spinal column. It;s complex nerve tissue that controls the activities of the body
Peripheral Nervous System
All other strings of nerve cells that connect to the Central Nervous System
What comes out of the Peripheral Nervous System?
Automatic Nervous System and Samatic Nervous System
Automatic Nervous System
Controls and regulated behavior that is automatic (Taking a breath, swallowing, digesting)
Samatic Nervous System
Regulated and controls behavior that is not automatic, more voluntary (skeletal movement)
What is divided from the Automatic Nervous System?
Sympathetic Nervous System and Parasympathetic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
sub-system of the body where its aroused or excited (draw attentions to things). it is important for people with ptsd or anxiety
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Sends messages to calm our bodies and relax
What is the Nervous system made out of?
Neurons: sensory, motor, and inter
Sensory Neurons
Neurons or cells that communicate information from sensory organs to the Central Nervous Systems
Motor Neurons
Communicate information from the brain or the spinal column to the muscle glands
Inter Neurons
Communicating between both sensory and motor
What does a neuron do?
it contains a cell body that helps manufacture and release neuro-transmitters that help regulate the body
Axon
A thin, narrow extension to the body. Transmits electrical impulses away from the cell body
Dendrite
Receives nerve impulses (information)
Synapse
The space between two neurons. Where Transmitter are released from space to the next neuron
Myelin Sheath
Protective outer coating around the Axon. This allows impulses to be sent in a faster way
Thalamus
Portion of the fore brain known as the "gate keeper". It regulates sensory information as it goes to the brain. Also sends sensory information to other parts of the brain
Hypothalamus
Links the nervous and endocrine systems. Regulates some of our basic needs (sleep, hunger, sex drive). Sends messages to other glands to produce hormones
Amygdala
Part of the limbic system. Prioritizes and discriminates our survival needs. Part of our emotion center (joy and anxiety). Plays a role for memory and learning.
Hippocampus
Consolodates memory. Stores memory and decies where it goes
Basalganglia
Controls voluntary movement
Pre-frontal cortex
Responsible for high level thinking. Allows the use to plan, analyze, and organize
Neocortex (cerebrum)
Largest structure (both hemisphere). 80% of the cerebrum. 4 lobes on the back.
What are the four lobes apart of the Neocortex (cerebrum)
Parietal, Frontal, Temporal, and Occipital
Parietal Lobe
Spacial orientation
Frontal Lobe
Controls motor function and flexibility of thought
Temporal Lobe
Take in sensory information an it interprets things we hear and smell
Occipital Lobe
Focuses on interpreting visual stimuli
What is the Endocrine System
Helps regulate basic physiological processes. Consist of glands and organs that produce and release hormones. The secondary (slower) communication system
Hormones
Chemical messenger that produced in the body and regulates cell activity and bodily functions. Like your body's metabolism.
Homeostasis
Balance of the body
Stimuli Response
Reaction to the outside world. Different glands produce different hormones
Thyroid
Stimulating hormone
Estrogen and Testosterone
sexual function hormones for males and females
Cortisol (glucocorticoid)
Stress releasing hormone
Oxytocin "The love Hormone"
Plays in role in attachment
Lepton and ghrelin
Together have impact on appetite (when you should eat and when to stop)
Adrenaline (epinephrine)
Helps regulate stress
What is stress?
Stress is any sort of psychological or physical or physiological challenge we experience
Design Type
How you assign individuals to a control or experimental group (Independent measures, matched pairs, repeated measures)
Independent measures
The assignment based on no distinguishing factor
Matched Pairs
Match participants with the same factor and assign them into different groups, either experimental or control
Repeated measures
Assigning individuals and then having them take part in multiple trials and determining the average/score before determining the results for the groups
Random Sample
Every member of the target population has had an equal chance of being invited or selected to participate
Opportunity Sample
You acquire participants from you target population based on availability
Purposive Sample
When you acquire participates because you have a specific purpose in mind and the participates have to have the specific skill
Representative Sample
Making sure you sample mimics your target population in ratio or percentage based on some significant factor
Snowball Sample
When the number of participants grows and they re recruited from the other participants (starting with a small number)
Sample
Group of participants
Participants
Person involved in experiment
Cross Cultural
It is so diverse, observation of people of two or more cultures
Cross sectional
When you focus your attention on a group of people that usually share culture, and in that group you determine a special factor that distinguishes them
Naturalistic (quasi)
when the independent variable cannot be manipulated
Target population
smaller segment of population that represents the population because you have access to it
Scheme(a)
Organized patterns of thought that guide behavior, they can change over time (changing with us as we experience new things). They are a mental representation that define who you are. Three stages to how a schema forms: Disequilibrium, assimilation, and accommodation.