APWH - Period 2 - Big Concepts

Terms in this set (12)

The core beliefs preached by the historic Buddha and recorded by his followers into sutras and other scriptures were, in part, a reaction to the Vedic beliefs and rituals dominant in South Asia. Buddhism changed over time as it spread throughout Asia, first through the support of the Mauryan Emperor Asoka, and then through the efforts of missionaries and merchants and the establishment of educational institutions to promote its core teachings. Confucianism's core beliefs and writing originated in the writings and lessons of Confucius and were elaborated by key disciples who sought to promote social harmony by outlining proper rituals and social relationships for all people in China including the rulers. In the major Doaist writings (such as the Daodejing), the core belief of balance between humans and nature assumed that the Chinese political system would be altered indirectly. Daosim also influenced the development of Chinese culture. The core beliefs preached by Jesus of Nazareth, and later recorded by his disciples, drew on the basic monotheism of Judaism, and initially rejected Roman and Hellenistic influences. Despite initial Roman imperial hostility, Christianity spread through the efforts of missionaries and merchants through many parts of Afro-Eurasia, and eventually gained Roman imperial support by the time of the emperor Constantine. The core ideas in Greco-Roman philosophy and science emphasized logic, empirical observation and the nature of political power and hierarchy.

Summary: Often asserting universal truths. Different ways of emerging, the historic Budda preached the core beliefs. Confucianism's core beliefs and writing originated in the writings and lessons of Confucius. Daoist writings was the core belief of balance between humans and nature.
'In the previous time period, the surpluses created by agricultural production first led to social and gender inequalities which in turn were reinforced by laws and codes. Belief systems too affected gender roles in society, and each of the major world religions that was codified during this period had an impact on gender relations. Hinduism, Confucianism and Christianity all encouraged patriarchy (although at differing levels of severity.) The Hindu Laws of Manu taught that a woman is not independent of men at any point in her life. Confucianism teaches a heirarchal family structure and endows the husband with authority over the wife. But like Christianity, this is a soft patriarchy with reciprocal obligations for the hustband, namely that he show respect and be a model of proper behavior in the family. The deep respect for parents and ancestors, called filial piety, was also a central tenent of Confucianism. In its original form Buddhism was unique in this regard. It rejected the caste system on which social inequality was based and taught that both genders had equal access to enlightenment. Thus it was a rare exception to the wide practice of patriarchy in the ancient world. As it spread into east Asia, however, Buddhism absorbed many cultural values of China. In many areas Confucian patriarchy remained the dominant family model.
Belief systems affected gender roles. Both Buddhism and Christianity encouraged monastic life and Confucianism emphasized filial piety.

Summary: Belief systems affected gender roles. Buddhism's encouragement of a monastic life and Confucianism's emphasis on filial piety