APWH - Period 2 - Big Concepts
Terms in this set (12)
The DEVELOPMENT & CODIFICATION of RELIGIOUS & CULTURAL TRADITIONS
1. Describe how the codifications and further developments of existing religious traditions such as Judaism and the Vedic religions.
Codifications and further developments of existing religious traditions provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by.
The association of monotheism with Judaism was further developed with the codification of the Hebrew Scriptures, which also reflected the influence of Mesopotamian cultural and legal traditions. The Assyrian, Babylonian, and Roman empires conquered various Jewish states at different points in time. These conquests contributed to the growth of Jewish diasporic communities around the Mediterranean and Middle East. The core beliefs outlined in the Sanskrit scriptures formed the basis of the Vedic religions — later known as Hinduism — which contributed to the development of the social and political roles of a caste system and in the importance of multiple manifestations of Brahma to promote teachings about reincarnation.
Summary: Judaism was further developed with the codification of the Hebrew Scriptures which also showed Mesopotamia influences.
Provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by
Emergence of belief systems and cultural traditions
2. Describe how new belief systems and cultural traditions emerged
The core beliefs preached by the historic Buddha and recorded by his followers into sutras and other scriptures were, in part, a reaction to the Vedic beliefs and rituals dominant in South Asia. Buddhism changed over time as it spread throughout Asia, first through the support of the Mauryan Emperor Asoka, and then through the efforts of missionaries and merchants and the establishment of educational institutions to promote its core teachings. Confucianism's core beliefs and writing originated in the writings and lessons of Confucius and were elaborated by key disciples who sought to promote social harmony by outlining proper rituals and social relationships for all people in China including the rulers. In the major Doaist writings (such as the Daodejing), the core belief of balance between humans and nature assumed that the Chinese political system would be altered indirectly. Daosim also influenced the development of Chinese culture. The core beliefs preached by Jesus of Nazareth, and later recorded by his disciples, drew on the basic monotheism of Judaism, and initially rejected Roman and Hellenistic influences. Despite initial Roman imperial hostility, Christianity spread through the efforts of missionaries and merchants through many parts of Afro-Eurasia, and eventually gained Roman imperial support by the time of the emperor Constantine. The core ideas in Greco-Roman philosophy and science emphasized logic, empirical observation and the nature of political power and hierarchy.
Often asserting universal truths.
Different ways of emerging, the historic Budda preached the core beliefs. Confucianism's core beliefs and writing originated in the writings and lessons of Confucius. Daoist writings was the core belief of balance between humans and nature.
3. Describe how belief systems reinforced existing social structures while also offering new roles to some men and women
'In the previous time period, the surpluses created by agricultural production first led to social and gender inequalities which in turn were reinforced by laws and codes. Belief systems too affected gender roles in society, and each of the major world religions that was codified during this period had an impact on gender relations. Hinduism, Confucianism and Christianity all encouraged patriarchy (although at differing levels of severity.) The Hindu Laws of Manu taught that a woman is not independent of men at any point in her life. Confucianism teaches a heirarchal family structure and endows the husband with authority over the wife. But like Christianity, this is a soft patriarchy with reciprocal obligations for the hustband, namely that he show respect and be a model of proper behavior in the family. The deep respect for parents and ancestors, called filial piety, was also a central tenent of Confucianism. In its original form Buddhism was unique in this regard. It rejected the caste system on which social inequality was based and taught that both genders had equal access to enlightenment. Thus it was a rare exception to the wide practice of patriarchy in the ancient world. As it spread into east Asia, however, Buddhism absorbed many cultural values of China. In many areas Confucian patriarchy remained the dominant family model.
Belief systems affected gender roles. Both Buddhism and Christianity encouraged monastic life and Confucianism emphasized filial piety.
Summary: Belief systems affected gender roles. Buddhism's encouragement of a monastic life and Confucianism's emphasis on filial piety
4. Describe other religious and cultural traditions, such as shamanism, animism and ancestor veneration
Shamanism and animism continued to shape the lives of people within and outside of core civilizations because of their daily reliance on the natural world. Ancestor veneration persisted in many regions (such as in Africa, the Mediterranean region, East Asia or the Andean areas) Artistic expressions, including literature and drama, architecture, and sculpture, manifested distinctive cultural developments Literature and drama acquired distinctive forms (such as Greek tragedy or Indian epics) that influenced artistic developments in neighboring regions and in later time periods. (Such as in Athens, Persia or South Asia). The Distinctive architectural styles can be seen in buildings (Such as those in India, Greece, the Roman empire, and Mesoamerica). Also the convergence of Greco-Roman culture and Buddhist beliefs affected the development of unique sculptural developments.
Summary: Shamanism shape the lives of people within and outside of core civilizations, because of their daily reliance on the natural world, same as animism. Ancestor veneration persisted in many region
5. Describe how imperial societies during the classical period imposed political unity on areas where previously there had been competing states
As the early states and empires grew in number, size and populations, they frequently competed for resources and came into conflict with one another. In quest of land, wealth, and security, some empires expanded dramatically. In doing so, they built powerful military machines and administrative institutions that were capable of organizing human activities over long distances, and they created new groups of military and political elites to manage their affairs. As these empires expanded their boundaries, they also faced the need to develop policies and procedures to govern their relations with ethnically and culturally diverse populations: sometimes to integrate them within an imperial society and sometimes to exclude them. In some cases, these empires became victims of their own successes. By expanding boundaries too far, they created political, cultural and administrative difficulties that they could not manage. They also experienced environmental, social and economic problems when they over-exploited their lands and subjects and permitted excessive wealth to concentrate in the hands of privileged classes.
Summary: The number and size of imperial societies grew dramatically in Southwest Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Mediterranean region, Mesoamerica and Andean South
5. Describe new techniques of imperial administration during the classical period.
Empires and states developed new techniques of imperial administration based, in part, on the success of earlier political forms. In order to organize their subjects the rulers created administrative institutions including centralized governments, elaborate legal systems, and bureaucracies. (such as in China, Persia, Rome or South Asia) Imperial governments projected military power over large areas using a variety of techniques including: diplomacy; developing supply lines; building fortifications, defensive walls, and roads; and drawing new groups of military officers and soldiers from the local populations or conquered peoples. Much of the success of empires rested on their promotion of trade and economic integration by building and maintaining roads and issuing currencies.
Unique social and economic dimensions developed in imperial societies in Afro-Eurasia and the Americas
Summary: Based on the success of earlier political form. Rulers created administrative institutions, governments projected military power over larger areas
7. Describe the social and economic dimension of imperial societies during the classical period
Unique social and economic dimensions developed in imperial societies in Afro-Eurasia and the Americas
Cities served as centers of trade, public performance of religious rituals, and political administration for states and empires (such as Persepolis, Chang'an, Pataliputra, Athens, Carthage, Rome, Alexandria, Constantinople or Teotihuacan.)The social structures of all empires displayed hierarchies that included cultivators, laborers, slaves, artisans, merchants, elites or caste groups.
Imperial societies relied on a range of methods to maintain the production of food and provide rewards for the loyalty of the elites including corvee, slavery, rents and tributes, peasant communities and family and household production
Patriarchy continued to shape gender and family relations in all imperial societies of this period.
Summary: Cities served as centers of trade, public performance of religious rituals and political administration for states and empires. Social structures of all empires displayed hierarchies, relied on a range of labor systems, shape gender and family relations
8. Describe the decline and collapse of the Roman, Han, Maurya and Gupta empires
The Roman, Han, Persian, Mauryan, and Gupta empires created political, cultural, and administrative difficulties that they could not manage, which eventually led to their decline, collapse and transformation into successor empires or states. Through excessive mobilization of resources, imperial governments caused environmental damage (such as deforestation, desertification, soil erosion or silted rivers) and general social tensions and economic difficulties by concentrating too much wealth in the hands of elites.
External problems resulted from security issues along their frontiers, including the threat of invasions. (Such as between Han China and Xiongnu; Gupta and the White Huns; or between Romans, and their northern and eastern neighbors)
Summary: They could not manage the administrative difficulties, environmental damage, social tensions, and economic difficulties.
9. Describe the land and water routes that became the basis for interregional trade, communication and exchange networks in the Eastern Hemisphere
With the organization of large-scale empires, the volume of long-distance trade increased dramatically. Much of this trade resulted from the demand for raw materials and luxury goods. Land and water routes linked many regions of the Eastern Hemisphere, while somewhat later separate networks connected the peoples and societies of the Americas. Exchanges of people, technology, religious and cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals and disease pathogens developed alongside the trade in goods across far-flung networks of communication and exchange.
Land and water routes became the basis for trans-regional trade, communication and exchange networks in the Eastern Hemisphere, while somewhat later separate networks connected the peoples and societies of the Americas. (Students should know how factors including the climate and location of the routes, the typical trade goods, and the ethnicity of people involved shaped the distinctive features of the following trade routes.)
o Eurasian Silk Roads
o Trans-Saharan caravan routes
o Indian Ocean sea lanes
o Mediterranean sea lanes
Summary: Connected the people and societies. Eurasian Silk Roads, Trans-Saharan Carawan routes, and Indian Ocean Sea lines
10. Describe how technologies facilitated long-distance communication and exchange
New technologies facilitated long-distance communication and exchange. New technologies (such as yokes, saddles, or stirrups) permitted the use of domesticated pack animals (such as horses, oxen, llamas or camels) to transport goods across longer routes. Innovations in maritime technologies (such as the lateen sail or dhow ships) as well as advanced knowledge of the monsoon winds stimulated exchanges along maritime routes from East Africa to East Asia.
Summary: Transport goods across longer routes which was permitted the use of domesticated pack of animals
11. Describe how trade networks transmitted more than just trade goods across extensive networks of communication and exchange
Alongside the trade in goods, exchanges or people, technology, religious and cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals and disease pathogens developed across far-flung networks of communication and exchange.
The spread of crops, including rice and cotton from South Asia to the Middle East, encouraged changes in farming and irrigation techniques (such as the development of the qanat system).The spread of disease pathogens diminished urban populations and contributed to the decline of some empires (such as Rome or China).Religious and cultural traditions were transformed as they spread including Chinese culture, Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism.
It exchanges of people, technology, religious, and cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals and disease pathogens
As states and empires increased in size and contact between regions increased, religious and cultural systems and institutions underwent transformation. Religious and belief systems bonded people together and gave them a common ethical code to abide their lives by. The shared belief among people also influenced political, economical and occupational stratification. Religious and political authority often became rulers (some were also considered divine). They used religion, along with military and legal structures, to justify their rule and ensure its continuation. Religions and belief systems could also generate conflict, partly because beliefs and practices varied greatly within and among societies.
-Empire increased caused religion spread
-Religion gave people a code to live their lives by and share a common thing.
-Impacted political, economic and occupational stratification.
-Religion allowed some special individuals to become rulers and to justify their ruling
- Religion also caused conflict because sometimes it was practiced in different ways.
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