nature vs. nuture debate
the controversy over the relative contributions of biology and experiences.
the process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as members of that society
theories of self
looking glass selg-->charles cooley
george herbert mead
A theory developed by Freud that attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
individual's conscious, reflexive experience of personal identity separate and distinct from other individuals
two components(the conscience and the ego-ideal) and represents internalized demands of society
psychosexual stages of development
According to Freudian theory, there are five stages of psychosexual development, each characterized by a dominant mode of achieving sexual pleasure: the oral stage, the anal stage, the phallic stage, the latency stage, and the genital stage.
looking glass self
Charles cooley:an image of yourself based on what you believe others think of you
parts of looking glass self
1)we imagine what we look like to others
2)we imagine other people's judgment of us
3)we experience some type of feeling about us becaue opur perceptions of other people's judgment.
The first stage in Mead's theory of the development of self wherein children mimic or imitate others.
Mead's second stage in the development of role taking; children act in ways they imagine other people would
The perspectives and expectations of a particular role that a child learns and internalizes.
Mead's third stage in the development of role taking; children anticipate the actions of others based on social rules
Mead's term for widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves
dual nature of the self
the belief that we experience the self as both subject and object, the "I" and the "me"
William I. and Dorothy S. Thomas' classic formulation of the definition of the situation: "If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences."
defintion of the situation
an agreement with others about "what is going on" in a given circumstances. This consensus allows us to coordinate our actions with those of others and realize goals.
expression of behavior
small actions such as the eye roll or head nod that serve as a interactional tool to help project our defintion of the situation to others.
expressions given off
observable expressions that can be either intended or unintended and are usually nonverbal
the process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them
An approach, pioneered by Erving Goffman, in which social life is analyzed in terms of drama or the stage; also called dramaturgical analysis.
in dramaturgical perspective, the setting or scene of performances that helps establish definition of situation
expressive equpiment we consciously or unconsciously use as we present ourselves to others, including appearance and manner, to help establish definition of situation
in the dramaturgical perspective, places in which we rehearse and prepare for our performance
the process by which a concept or practice is created and maintained by participants who collectively agree that it exists
cooling the mark
behaviors that help others to save face or avoid embarrassment, often referred to as civlity or tact
ethnographic description that focuses on the feelings and reactions of the ethnographer
The process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one's life
places in which people are separated from the rest of society and controlled by officials in charge
a social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects personal ability and effort
a status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's general position in society
Judging someone on the basis of one's perception of the group to which that person belongs
Emotions like sympathy, embarrassment, or shame that require that we assume the perspective of another person or many other people and respond from that person or group's point of view.
emotion work (emotional labor)
process of evoking, supressing, or otherwise managing feelings to create a publicly observable display of emotion
a postmodern idea that the self is now developed by multiple influences chosen from a wide range of media sources (page 118)