AP Human Geography

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Which of the following statements best describes the informal sector of the economy?
A) Economic activities that are not regulated or taxed by governments.
B) Economic activity that is used to determine a country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
C) Benefits of economic activities that are realized from producing large quantities of a good or service.
D) Decline in industrial employment in core regions.
E) Large farms that specialize in the production of one crop for market
A) Economic activities that are not regulated or taxed by governments
Which of the following economic activities is least likely to be classified as part of the informal economy?
A) Begging.
B) Organized crime.
C) Child labor.
D) Government employee.
E) Home dressmaker.
D) Government employee
As mandated by the United Nations (UN) international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) can serve all of the following criteria except
A) be a for profit organization.
B) have a clear mission statement consistent with the United Nations goals and objectives.
C) provide a variety of services and humanitarian aid to a country's people.
D) bring citizens' concerns to the government or UN.
E) provide funding and expertise to local development projects.
A) be a for profit organization.
The gender empowerment index (GEM) attempts to measure the influence of women in a society by indexing woman's income, participation in labor force, professional jobs and political influence. Which of the following regions scored the lowest on the GEM index in 2002?
A) North America.
B) Eastern Europe.
C) Middle East.
D) East Asia.
E) South America.
C) Middle East.
The overall purpose of micro loan development strategy is to
A) provide small-scale loans to individuals to create sustainable start up industries in less developed regions.
B) provide large scale loans to less developed countries in order to build large infrastructure projects like dams and roads.
C) create an international bank for countries to borrow money in order to stabilize their currencies.
D) create an international organization to invest in science research and development.
E) generate capital for multinational corporations to invest in factories in less developed countries.
A) provide small-scale loans to individuals to create sustainable start up industries in less developed regions.
Which of the following best describes the purpose of the Fair Trade movement?
A) Insure that a higher percentage of the profit in international trade goes to the producers in less developed countries.
B) Create international laws to ensure safe passage of cargo ships in the seas.
C) Increase tariffs and quotas on international trade.
D) Protect the interests of investors of multinational corporations.
E) Create a common market with few trade regulations in Europe.
A) Insure that a higher percentage of the profit in international trade goes to the producers in less developed countries.
Loss of local ownership of companies, loss of control of local affairs, and change in culture are all potential negative impacts of which of the following processes?
A) Localization.
B) Multiplier.
C) Globalization.
D) Agglomeration.
E) Just-in-time production.
C) Globalization.
Advocates of globalization processes would disagree with which of the following statements?
A) The new international division of labor has lowered production costs thereby reducing the cost of goods to consumers.
B) The globalization of finance has increased the amount of capital available for projects around the world.
C) Globalization has induced a new technology system of robotics, biotechnology and information systems.
D) Not all people in a country benefit equally from globalization, but countries that engage in the global economy are better off than those that don't.
E) Globalization does not change people's culture or the type of jobs available in a country.
E) Globalization does not change people's culture or the type of jobs available in a country.
Critiques of globalization processes would disagree with which of the following statements?
A) Globalization has intensified the difference in income between the core and periphery countries.
B) Globalization has lead to a homogenized consumer market for many parts of the world.
C) The effects of globalization could have a destabilizing effect upon the governments of many countries.
D) Globalization often creates tension between the interests of transnational corporations and local communities.
E) While both the core and periphery world benefit from globalization, the periphery benefits the most.
E) While both the core and periphery world benefit from globalization, the periphery benefits the most.
All of the following are drawbacks to the self-sufficiency model of development except
A) it creates a large government bureaucracy.
B) it stifles competition.
C) it protects inefficient industries.
D) it encourages internal innovation.
E) it increases the price of goods for consumers
D) it encourages internal innovation.
Which of the following best describes Rostow's model of economic development?
A) A country should invest equally across all sectors of the economy and protect new industries from international competition.
B) Governments should purchase and create companies within their border and slowly build the company.
C) Countries will proceed through a series of stages in which a country focuses on the development of industries in which it has a comparative advantage.
D) Focuses on developing economic and social institution that can be sustained without sacrificing or severely damaging the environment.
E) Countries should outsource industrial production to periphery countries in order to lower the cost of goods in the "Core".
C) Countries will proceed through a series of stages in which a country focuses on the development of industries in which it has a comparative advantage.
Which of the following is the main purpose of alliances such as North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), European Union (EU) and Caribbean Community (CARICOM)?
A) Develop common defense policies in case of invasion or attack of one its member states.
B) Create common policies for member states that lead to lowering the cost of trade within the alliance.
C) Member countries work together in order to increase the cost of resources such as oil to non-member countries.
D) Develop a common currency between all member states.
E) The three alliances work together in order to improve automobile manufacturing on a global scale.
B) Create common policies for member states that lead to lowering the cost of trade within the alliance.
To finance development, many countries have accumulated large foreign debts relative to their gross domestic product (GDP). As a result, large percentages of their national budgets must be used to repay loans. Which of the following regions in 2005 had the highest debt to GDP ratios?
A) East Asia.
B) Sub-Saharan Africa.
C) South America.
D) Australia.
E) East Europe.
B) Sub-Saharan Africa.
Which of the following statements is not an important element of the debt trap?
A) Periphery countries borrow money from core countries in order to establish new industries.
B) Many periphery countries want to create a diversified economy using import substitution concepts.
C) Core countries usually do not benefit from the products of periphery countries.
D) If the invested money does not yield enough returns the country borrows more money to pay off the existing loan.
E) The value of currencies in periphery countries is often not as valuable as core countries currencies.
C) Core countries usually do not benefit from the products of periphery countries.
All of the following are negative impacts of acid rain except
A. loss of aquatic life.
B. destruction of the ozone layer.
C. damage soil microorganisms.
D. reduction of food crop yields.
E. damage to marble and limestone buildings.
B. destruction of the ozone layer.
104. Acid rain most impacts which of the following regions?
A) Europe.
B) Antarctica.
C) Australia.
D) South America.
E) Sub-Saharan Africa.
A) Europe.
Based on impact studies by climatologists and geographers which of the following is not a likely impact of global warming?
A) Decreasing ice in the Arctic.
B) Rising sea levels.
C) Low elevation coastal areas will have increased likelihood of flooding and loss of land.
D) Increasing intensity of tropical storms.
E) The most negatively impacted countries are likely to be highly developed countries of Europe and North America.
E) The most negatively impacted countries are likely to be highly developed countries of Europe and North America.
Which of the following best describes the Kuznet's curve related to development and pollution?
A) As a country's economy develops pollution levels increase.
B) As a country's economy industrializes, pollution will increase but as the population gets wealthier pollution will eventually decline.
C) Initially economic development leads to a decline in pollution levels but as a country becomes wealthier pollution increases.
D) The transformation from an industrial society to an agricultural society leads to pollution decline.
E) When a poor country gets richer, pollution declines
B) As a country's economy industrializes, pollution will increase but as the population gets wealthier pollution will eventually decline.
Which of the following best describes the objective of ecotourism?
A) Transform and exploit the natural beauty of an area into a tourist destination.
B) Create an environmentally-friendly tourist destination in an attempt to maintain the unique qualities of the region.
C) Create a small-scale representation of an environment to replace the previous environment which existed prior to tourism.
D) Develop the economy of an area with tourist attractions.
E) Develop a tourist economy based on large theme parks, hotels and restaurants that require a transformation of the local environment.
B) Create an environmentally-friendly tourist destination in an attempt to maintain the unique qualities of the region.
Ecotourism is most closely associated with which of the following development theories?
A) Appropriation.
B) Dependency.
C) Modernization.
D) Neoliberal Counterrevolution.
E) Sustainable development.
E) Sustainable development.
All of the following are advantages of outsourcing except
A) it can take advantage of low cost over-seas labor.
B) it creates competitive market for parts and supplies.
C) it provides more flexibility for companies.
D) it simplifies logistics of transportation of parts and products.
E) some countries have less restrictive environmental codes and regulations.
D) it simplifies logistics of transportation of parts and products.
The concept of outsourcing is fundamentally based on which of the following economic principles?
A) Comparative advantage.
B) Aggregation.
C) First effective settlement.
D) Uniform plane.
E) Renewable resources.
A) Comparative advantage.
The process of producing parts or products in a foreign country for domestic use or sale is known as?
A) Ecumene.
B) Peak value intersection.
C) Outsourcing.
D) Quanternary activities.
E) Tapering principle.
C) Outsourcing.
Which of the following country did many Asian countries follow as an example to development?
A) China.
B) Australia.
C) Japan.
D) Philippines.
E) India.
C) Japan.
How did Japan develop so rapidly after being devastated from WWII?
A) They took advantage of a large labor force.
B) They flooded the world market with inexpensive goods.
C) They funneled profits into developing higher value goods
D) They spent twice as much money on research and development as the United States.
E) All of the above.
E) All of the above.
The wealthiest economic region in East Asia today is
A) China.
B) South Korea.
C) Japan.
D) Philippines.
E) Taiwan
C) Japan.
Which of the following was not a policy the Chinese used to improve their economic
standing in the world?
A) Created special economic zones to encourage production.
B) Followed an open door policy allowing trade with the world.
C) Increasingly moved towards a communist economic system in the early 21st century.
D) Investing in research and cutting edge industries of bio-technology and computer
industry.
E) Encouraged foreign investment aimed at improving China's domestic industries and
markets.
C) Increasingly moved towards a communist economic system in the early 21st century.
The rise of China economically has had which of the following impacts on the global
economy?
A) Increased prices for consumers of manufactured goods.
B) Reinforced Europe's role in manufacturing.
C) Lowered the price of consumer goods on a global scale
D) Caused world leaders to divest in China and Asia.
E) China's labor market has increase the cost of production.
C) Lowered the price of consumer goods on a global scale
What is the term for small areas within a country that are granted favorable
investment and trading conditions in order to attract industries?
A) Derelict landscape.
B) Export-Processing Zone (EPZ).
C) Non-Governmental Organization (NGO).
D) Import Substitution Region (ISR).
E) Columbian Exchange.
B) Export-Processing Zone (EPZ).
Maquiladoras provide which of the following benefits to producers?
A) Duty free production in a low wage country.
B) Allows access to high skill labor markets.
C) Production area is closer to the market than traditional manufacturing areas in the US.
D) Concentrates production in the highest order cities.
E) Levels the economic playing field for factories located in America and China.
A) Duty free production in a low wage country.
Most of the products that are produced in Maquiladoras are mainly sent to consumers
in which country?
A) Mexico.
B) China.
C) India.
D) United States.
E) Brazil.
D) United States.
Just-in-time production is most associated with which manufacturing process?
A) Fordist.
B) Assembly line.
C) Flexible production.
D) Positive externalities.
E) Tertiary.
C) Flexible production.
Just-in-time manufacturing has had which of the following impacts on the locational
factors of production?
A) Requires larger sites in order to store the parts before assembly.
B) Allows companies to locate further away from other producers thereby lowering land
costs.
C) Reinforces agglomeration of related industries.
D) Encourages consumers to purchase products on-line.
E) Encourages companies to outsource production.
C) Reinforces agglomeration of related industries.
The textile industry in the United States has been more susceptible to out-sourcing
than has the automobile assembly industry for which of the following reasons?
A) Auto assembly is more of a market-oriented industry and textiles are cheaper to
transport than cars.
B) Textiles are cheaper to transport than cars and stronger worker laws are common in
less developed countries.
C) Auto assembly is more of a market-oriented industry, textiles are cheaper to
transport than cars, and low cost, low skill labor is often available overseas.
D) Available low cost, low skill labor overseas, stronger worker laws in less developed
countries, and lack of workers in US willing to work in textile industry contribute to the
out-sourcing.
E) Textiles are cheaper to transport than cars, available low cost, low skill labor overseas,
and stronger worker laws in less developed countries make it easier.
C) Auto assembly is more of a market-oriented industry, textiles are cheaper to
transport than cars, and low cost, low skill labor is often available overseas.
Which of the following is the last stage of development of Rostow's model?
A) Drive to Maturity.
B) High Mass Consumption.
C) Preconditions for Take-off.
D) Take-off.
E) Traditional Society.
B) High Mass Consumption.
Rostow's economic development model indicates that before high level economic
development can occur,
A) countries must have extensive resources and part of the world's free market economy.
B) countries must develop industries that are sustainable and do not negatively affect the
environment.
C) primary sector employment must decrease and agricultural output increase.
D) countries must receive foreign aid or investment in large quantities in order to achieve
large-scale technology transfer.
E) countries must pass through predictable and sequential stages.
E) countries must pass through predictable and sequential stages.
When economic development within a country occurs not all regions of a country or
region will benefit equally; in fact some regions may be negatively affected by another
region's development. Which of the following terms best describes this negative
situation?
A) Animate power.
B) Gravity Model.
C) Filtering effects.
D) Backwash effects.
E) Potential reserve.
D) Backwash effects.
Which of the following is the best definition of Gross National Product (GNP)?
A) The value of all goods and service produced within a country in a given year.
B) The value of all goods and service that the citizens of a county produced in a
given year regardless of where they live.
C) The income earned by a country's people.
D) Total household, business and government income minus taxes.
E) The value of a country's exports minus their imports.
B) The value of all goods and service that the citizens of a county produced in a
given year regardless of where they live.
Which of the following is the best definition of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)?
A) The value of all goods and service produced within a country in a given year.
B) The value of all goods and service that the citizens of a county produced in a given
year regardless of where they live.
C) The income earned by a country's people.
D) Total household, business and government income minus taxes.
E) The value of a country's exports minus their imports.
A) The value of all goods and service produced within a country in a given year.
Which of the following are considered propulsive industries for the United States in
the 21st century?
A) Agriculture.
B) Biotechnology.
C) Banking/finance.
D) Steel production.
E) Ship building.
B) Biotechnology.
What is the term for places of economic activity deliberately organized around one or
more high growth industries?
A) Industrialization.
B) Core.
C) Growth pole.
D) Conurbation.
E) Heartland Theory
C) Growth pole.
Which of the following cities in the Middle East during the late 20th and early 21st
century became a center for capital, banking and international trade?
A) Cairo.
B) Baghdad.
C) Mecca.
D) Dubai.
E) Tehran.
D) Dubai.
Which of the following regions in the late 20th and early 21st century had the largest
increases in GDP per capita?
A) Western Europe.
B) Eastern Europe.
C) East Asia.
D) South Africa.
E) Middle East
C) East Asia.
The North/South split of development as shown by the Brandt line generally asserts
what factor?
A) Northern countries are poorer than Southern countries.
B) Western countries have greater influence and power than Eastern countries.
C) Northern countries are wealthier than southern countries.
D) At one point in history northern and southern countries were very similar in
development but because of political differences each region proceeded differently.
E) Political theory explains why Sub-Saharan Africa is politically unstable.
C) Northern countries are wealthier than southern countries.
What was the name of the report in 1980 that created a map showing the relative
wealth of the countries north of the line compared to the countries south of the line?
A) UN Report on Human Development
B) International Law of the Sea and its Effects.
C) Brandt Report.
D) CIA Fact-book Report on Development.
E) Cairo Conference Report on Population Impacts.
C) Brandt Report.
Which of the following countries has the highest overall Human Development Index
(HDI) ranking?
A) Democratic Republic of the Congo.
B) Argentina.
C) China.
D) Egypt.
E) India.
B) Argentina.
Which of the following regions has the lowest overall Human Development Index
(HDI) ranking?
A) Sub-Saharan Africa.
B) Latin America.
C) East Asia.
D) East Europe.
E) Middle East.
A) Sub-Saharan Africa.
The Human Development Index (HDI) uses four statistical measurements. Which of
the following lists are statistics used to measure the HDI?
A) Gross National Product (GNP), growth rate, Natural Increase Rate (NIR), and literacy.
B) Purchasing power, access to safe drinking water, Crude Birth Rate (CBR), and type of
government.
C) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, life expectancy, literacy rate, and HIV
infections per capita.
D) Per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP), life expectancy, literacy rate, and
average years of education.
E) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, infant mortality, literacy rate, and natural
increase.
D) Per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP), life expectancy, literacy rate, and
average years of education.
The Human Development Index (HDI) was derived with which of the following
purposes in mind?
A) Create a method of measuring development that focuses on the economic elements of
income and Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
B) Create a method of measuring development that attempts to include social and
economic elements.
C) Create a method of measuring development that focuses on social elements of literacy
and politics.
D) Create a method of measuring development that includes all elements of development.
E) Create a completely objective ranking of countries based on economic conditions
within a country.
B) Create a method of measuring development that attempts to include social and
economic elements.
This development strategy encourages countries to spread its investments equally
across all sectors of its economy and regions, encourages high tariffs and measures to
protect new emerging industries. The main goal is to reduce poverty.
A) Rostow Modernization Theory.
B) Sustainable Development.
C) Self-Sufficiency.
D) Devolution.
E) Gravity Model.
C) Self-Sufficiency.
Which of the following development strategies would be consistent with Rostow's
preconditions for take off stage?
A) Build hydroelectric dam and roads.
B) Debt reduction in order to increase income and currency stability.
C) Increase international trade of manufactured goods.
D) Increase tariffs on trade in order to keep out competition.
E) Exploit comparative advantage by trading with poorer countries.
A) Build hydroelectric dam and roads.
A community is considering providing incentives to attract new industries. Which of
the following industries would have the largest multiplier effect?
A) Call center for international company.
B) Retail mall.
C) Auto sales lot.
D) Regional soft-drink bottling facility.
E) Local medical clinic.
D) Regional soft-drink bottling facility.
A clustering of rubber tire and windshield producers near automobile assembly
plants is best explained by the benefits of
A) productivity.
B) range.
C) agglomeration.
D) space-time compression.
E) deglommeration.
C) agglomeration.
Which of the following statements is most true today relating to the situational
factors of business?
A) Situational factors of the 21st century are essentially the same as the 20th century.
B) Changes in transportation, manufacturing techniques and markets have changed
situational considerations in the 21st century.
C) While situational factors are important, the overall global economy is the most
important factor in industry today.
D) The situational factors for different industries vary little between industries.
E) Changes in technology put all industries and jobs in a country at risk of being outsourced
overseas
B) Changes in transportation, manufacturing techniques and markets have changed
situational considerations in the 21st century.
In the context of industrial location, which of the following best describes the
concept of situation?
A) The number of jobs that an industry will create in a region.
B) The location of an industry in relation to other industries.
C) A force that attracts industries to a specific location.
D) An area with advanced technology and culture.
E) The location of an industry in relation to resources used in production including
its market.
E) The location of an industry in relation to resources used in production including
its market.
In the context of industrial location, which of the following best describes the
concept of site?
A) The unique characteristics of a location including the factors of labor, capital
and land.
B) The location of an industry in relation to other industries.
C) A force that attracts industries to a specific location.
D) An area with advanced technology and culture.
E) The number of jobs that an industry will create in a region.
A) The unique characteristics of a location including the factors of labor, capital
and land.
Based on classical optimal location theory, which of the following best describes the
lowest cost location in the bulk gaining industry of soft-drink bottling?
A) Water and glass are ubiquitous but heavy so production should be relatively
close to the market in order to reduce transportation costs.
B) Soft-drinks should be bottled in a few locations in close proximity to syrup
production in order to maintain control of the taste. Proximity to market relative to
product control is not as important of a cost factor.
C) Bottling should occur in less developed countries because of low labor costs and
declining transportation costs.
D) Since bottling soft-drinks is a technology intensive process the bottling should occur
in the city or region with the most skilled labor.
E) Bottling processes should be located in rural locations because mechanized farming is
displacing farm workers.
A) Water and glass are ubiquitous but heavy so production should be relatively
close to the market in order to reduce transportation costs
Which of the following is the best example of a bulk gaining industry?
A) Paper production.
B) Copper mining.
C) Data-processing.
D) Medical equipment plant.
E) Automobile assembly.
E) Automobile assembly.
Which of the following is the best example of a bulk reducing industry?
A) Automobile assembly.
B) Copper mining.
C) Toy manufacturing.
D) Doctor.
E) Soft-drink bottling.
B) Copper mining.
The most important transportation improvement of the late 20th and early 21st century
impacting international trade is
A) increased speed and efficiency of airplanes.
B) improvements in intermodal containerization.
C) decreased reliance on transportation using fossil fuels.
D) improved major highway systems in United States and Europe.
E) faster and more efficient trains in Europe and the United States.
B) improvements in intermodal containerization.
Which of the following forms of transportation would be most effective in delivering
coal from a mine in Casper, Wyoming to a plant creating electricity in Houston, Texas?
A) Airplane.
B) Truck.
C) Railroad.
D) Pipeline.
E) Intermodal containers.
C) Railroad.
Weber's least cost location theory uses all of the following factors to determine
optimum location of a manufacturing facility except
A) labor cost.
B) transportation cost.
C) agglomeration effects.
D) relative location of resources and markets.
E) global division of labor.
E) global division of labor.
Which of the following industries would most likely be resource oriented?
A) Making concrete.
B) Fresh baked bread.
C) Paper production.
D) Bottling soft drinks.
E) Airplane production.
C) Paper production.
Which of the following industries would most likely be market oriented?
A) Windshields.
B) Threshing wheat.
C) Copper smelting.
D) French fry production.
E) Fish processing
A) Windshields.
Not all regions of a country will develop at the same rate or reap the benefits of a
country's economic development. Which of the following does not explain why Western
China has not developed as quickly as Eastern China?
A) Eastern China is better situated to take advantage of the global trade economy.
B) Western China lacks resources used for manufacturing.
C) Greater political power is located in Eastern China.
D) Larger labor supplies can be found in the east.
E) Western China's physical geography creates more challenges for transportation,
agriculture and industry than in Eastern China.
B) Western China lacks resources used for manufacturing.
Based on a Harvard Institute study, which attempted to quantify differences in
national economic development. Which of the following set of factors are common in
highly developed countries of the world?
A) Low latitude ecological zones and peripheral global locations.
B) Low latitude ecological zones, peripheral global locations, and rules of law that
prohibit corruption and breach of contract.
C) Large and expanding population, rules of law that prohibit corruption and breach of
contract, and market based economies.
D) Low latitude ecological zones, rules of law that prohibit corruption and breach of
contract, and market based economies.
E) Rules of law that prohibit corruption and breach of contract, and market based
economies.
E) Rules of law that prohibit corruption and breach of contract, and market based
economies.
Which of the following development schools of thought followed by the Chinese in
the 1980's advocates that counties who wish to improve their economy should privatize
industries, encourage foreign investment and move towards free trade?
A) Appropriation.
B) Dependency.
C) Modernization.
D) Neoliberal Counterrevolution.
E) Sustainable Development.
D) Neoliberal Counterrevolution.
Which of the following development schools of thought advocates the best strategies
for development are the use of micro loans for women and the poor, small-scale
community based projects, and resource conservation?
A) Appropriation.
B) Dependency.
C) Modernization.
D) Neoliberal Counterrevolution.
E) Sustainable Development.
E) Sustainable Development.
According to Wallerstein's world-systems analysis, which of the following is the
eventual outcome of the theory?
A) Permanent division of wealthy core countries and poor periphery countries.
B) Creation of one giant super core with the rest of the world as a periphery.
C) Evolution towards multiple cores that exchange goods, services and resources.
D) Current system of cores and periphery exists with the periphery becoming
increasingly financially dependent on the core.
E) Devolution of core, replaced by multiple semi-periphery regions supported by the
resources of nearby periphery regions.
C
50. Which of the following development schools of thought advocates that countries
proceed through progressive stages of economic structural change? Less developed
countries should follow the path that Western Europe and North America took during the
Industrial Revolution.
A) Core-periphery.
B) Dependency.
C) Modernization.
D) Neoliberal Counterrevolution.
E) Sustainable Development.
C
51. Which of the following development schools of thought advocates that the dynamic
between highly developed and developing countries, permanently keeps less developed
countries at an economic disadvantage?
A) Appropriation.
B) Dependency.
C) Modernization.
D) Neoliberal Counterrevolution.
E) Sustainable Development.
B
Based on the concept of core-periphery relationships, which of the following regions
of Europe best fits the description of periphery in the early 21st century?
A) United Kingdom.
B) France.
C) Germany.
D) Spain.
E) Netherland
D) Spain.
Based on the concept of core-periphery relationships, which of the following regions
of the United States best fits the description of periphery in the early 21st century?
A) Alaska.
B) Colorado.
C) New York.
D) California.
E) Illinois.
A) Alaska.
Based on the concept of Wallerstein's world-systems analysis, which of the
following countries best fits the description of core in the early 21st century?
A) Afghanistan.
B) China.
C) Cuba.
D) Germany.
E) Nigeria
D) Germany.
Based on the concept of Wallerstein's world-systems analysis, which of the
following countries best fits the description of semi-periphery in the early 21st century?
A) Afghanistan.
B) China.
C) Cuba.
D) Germany.
E) Nigeria.
B) China.
Computer technical support jobs are increasingly being outsourced to India, because
of improvements in telecommunication technology. Which term best exemplifies this
trend?
A) Space-time compression.
B) Agglomeration.
C) Absolute distance.
D) Multiplier effect.
E) Non-governmental organizations (NGO).
A) Space-time compression.
Computer technical support jobs are increasingly being outsourced to India for all of
the following reasons except
A) large English speaking population in India.
B) strong telecommunications infrastructure in parts of India.
C) lower wages for workers than the United States.
D) poor training of high-tech students in the United States.
E) increasing population of high skilled labor in India.
D) poor training of high-tech students in the United States.
All of the following are true of fossil fuels except
A) they are distributed unevenly around the globe.
B) the supply of fossil fuels is finite.
C) wealthy countries consume greater amounts of fossil fuels than poorer countries.
D) the wealthiest countries have the greatest deposits of fossil fuels.
E) the cost of fossil fuels will likely rise as global demand increases and reserves
decline.
D) the wealthiest countries have the greatest deposits of fossil fuels.
Which of the following regions has the largest percent of the world's petroleum
reserves?
A) Southeast Asia.
B) Eastern Europe.
C) Central America.
D) Southwest Asia.
E) North America
D) Southwest Asia.
Which of the following descriptions is least accurate?
A) Post-Fordist workers often work on equal terms and conditions with managers.
B) Fordist production requires mainly low skill labor.
C) Post-Fordist production plants often produce a greater variety of goods that meet the
needs of niche markets.
D) Fordist production workers often perform a specific specialized task over and over on
the line.
E) Post-Fordist production emphasizes the importance of classical economic theory
as measured in distance cost as opposed to time cost.
E) Post-Fordist production emphasizes the importance of classical economic theory
as measured in distance cost as opposed to time cost.
Prior to the Industrial Revolution, which of the following best describes
manufacturing?
A) Large factories located in cities were owned by corporations.
B) Multinational corporations create a global assembly line of production.
C) Individual families produced goods by hand or on individual spinning wheels.
D) Mechanized assembly line with workers monitoring the quality of the product.
E) Manufacturing did not exist prior to the Industrial Revolution
C) Individual families produced goods by hand or on individual spinning wheels.
The industrialization of a country's economy often has which the following largescale
effects on a country's demographic patterns?
A) People migrate from the cities into rural areas seeking new jobs in the primary sector.
This migration leads to a decrease in death rate for the country.
B) Individuals migrate to new industrial or urban areas in search of jobs. Over time the
death rate increases for the country because of the high risk jobs.
C) Families migrate to cities seeking jobs in the secondary sector and because of the
increased wages, birth rate increases for the country.
D) Mechanized farming replaces many labor-intensive jobs, inducing people to
move to new industrial and urban areas. Over time, the country's birth rate
decreases as the country industrializes.
E) Industrialization has very little effect on the migration of a country's population but
does have the dramatic effect of increasing the death rate
D) Mechanized farming replaces many labor-intensive jobs, inducing people to
move to new industrial and urban areas. Over time, the country's birth rate
decreases as the country industrializes.
Which stage of the classic Demographic Transition Model (DTM) is most associated
with the industrialization of a country's economy?
A) Stage I.
B) Stage II.
C) Stage III.
D) Stage IV.
E) Stage V.
C) Stage III.
Which of the following factors does not explain why automobile manufacturing and
assembly plants continue to close or relocate facilities in the northern United States?
A) Lower labor costs in other U.S. regions.
B) Cars are increasingly made with plastic and aluminum materials, which changes the
optimal location of assembly plants.
C) The United States population center continues to migrate south and west thereby
increasing the transportation costs of production in the north.
D) Weak unions in the north and shortage of skilled labor.
E) Increasing competition from international companies locating plants in the United
States.
D) Weak unions in the north and shortage of skilled labor.
Which of the following situational factors best explains why automobile
manufacturing and assembly plants continue to locate in the interior United States?
A) Lower labor costs than in coastal locations with strong environmental laws.
B) Relatively less expensive site costs and quick delivery to large markets.
C) Weight gain industries can locate further from their market area.
D) Weak unions and stringent environmental laws.
E) Decreasing global transportation costs and rising labor costs in China
B) Relatively less expensive site costs and quick delivery to large markets
Which of the following industries is most likely to outsource jobs to another country
because of slight increases in labor costs?
A) Steel manufacturing.
B) Automobile assembly plant.
C) Textile plant.
D) High-tech research facility.
E) Milk dairy
C) Textile plant.
Which of the following best explains why many companies continue to locate
factories in traditional manufacturing regions like the northeast United States and
Western Europe?
A) Low labor costs and loose environmental laws.
B) Large pool of skilled labor and quick delivery to large markets.
C) Stable government and low labor costs.
D) Weak unions and stringent environmental laws.
E) Decreasing global transportation costs and rising labor costs in China.
B) Large pool of skilled labor and quick delivery to large markets.
Which of the following areas is considered a peripheral region within China?
A) Hong Kong - Guangdong - Southern.
B) Shanghai - Chang - East.
C) Beijing - Northern.
D) Lhasa - Tibet - West.
E) Shenyang - Northeast.
D) Lhasa - Tibet - West.
Which of the following areas is not considered a large manufacturing region
in China?
A) Hong Kong - Guangdong - Southern.
B) Shanghai - Chang - East.
C) Beijing - North.
D) Lhasa - Tibet - West.
E) Shenyang - Northeast.
D) Lhasa - Tibet - West.
Which of the following does not accurately depict the location characteristics of
manufacturing in Russia?
A) Generally concentrated in the western portions of Russia.
B) Located along transportation routes, especially railroads.
C) The Ural Mountains vast amount of natural resources both supply and fuel factories
with materials necessary to manufacture goods.
D) The vast amount of fast moving rivers and large population create an
agglomeration of industries near Lake Baykal.
E) A large manufacturing area is concentrated near Moscow because of its market,
transportation connections, and its centrality.
D) The vast amount of fast moving rivers and large population create an
agglomeration of industries near Lake Baykal.
Which of the following American cities is not located in a major manufacturing
region?
A) New York.
B) Chicago.
C) Atlanta.
D) Seattle.
E) Miami.
E) Miami.
Which of the following countries is not a major producer of steel?
A) China.
B) Japan.
C) United States.
D) South Korea.
E) Nigeria.
E) Nigeria.
All of the following descriptions explain in part the diffusion of the Industrial
Revolution except
A) Hierarchical diffusion - The British Empire spread industrial concepts throughout
many world cities and regions.
B) Contagious diffusion - manufacturing ideas and concepts spread from England to
nearby European countries.
C) Stimulus diffusion - Many American and European companies modified ideas and
concepts from England and created new ways of manufacturing.
D) Reverse hierarchical - manufacturing ideas and concepts from the outlying
rural areas of the British Empire spread back to England and stimulated the
Industrial Revolution.
E) Diffused to areas with common locational factors including the availability of coal,
access to a water port, proximity to a labor supply and available capital.
D) Reverse hierarchical - manufacturing ideas and concepts from the outlying
rural areas of the British Empire spread back to England and stimulated the
Industrial Revolution.
Which of the following is considered the place of origin of the Industrial Revolution?
A) United Kingdom.
B) France.
C) United States.
D) Belgium.
E) Germany
A) United Kingdom.
During the 1800s Industrial Revolution, the most important fuel source for
manufacturing was
A) oil.
B) coal.
C) nuclear.
D) hydro-electric.
E) solar.
B) coal.
Which of the following regions accounted for nearly 80% of the industrial output of
the early 1800s Industrial Revolution?
A) Western Europe.
B) Eastern China.
C) Unites States.
D) Australia.
E) South America.
A) Western Europe.
Which of the following regions has the highest concentration of a subsistent
economic system?
A) Central America.
B) Central Africa.
C) Western Europe.
D) Australia.
E) South America.
B) Central Africa.
Which of the following regions gets the highest percentage of its Gross Domestic
Product (GDP) from agriculture?
A) Central America.
B) Central Africa.
C) Western Europe.
D) Australia.
E) South America.
B) Central Africa.
Which of the following is an economic system with relatively simple technology on
which people produce most or all of the goods to satisfy their family's needs?
A) Capitalist.
B) Mixed.
C) Planned.
D) Subsistence.
E) Market.
D) Subsistence.
Which of the following is typically not a characteristic of less developed countries?
A) Extreme disparities in income exist between rich and poor.
B) An increasing percentage of the population living in cities.
C) Large portions of the population engaged in agricultural activity.
D) Large portions of the population are highly skilled and educated.
E) The standard of living has generally been rising.
D) Large portions of the population are highly skilled and educated.
Applying the Core-Periphery model, which of the following best describes the
classification of South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore?
A) Core.
B) Downward transition.
C) Periphery.
D) Resource frontier.
E) Semi-periphery.
E) Semi-periphery.
. Many United States high tech companies have been outsourcing many of their
technical support and other tertiary jobs to which of the following countries?
A) India
B) China
C) South Africa
D) Saudi Arabia
E) Germany
A) India
Which of the following best describes the overall global trend in agriculture?
A) The percent of people working in agriculture is declining and the productivity of
farming is decreasing.
B) The percent of people working in agriculture is declining and the productivity of
farming is increasing.
C) The percent of people working in agriculture is increasing
D) The percent of people working in agriculture is increasing and productivity of farming
is decreasing.
E) The percent of people working in agriculture is increasing and productivity of farming
is increasing.
B) The percent of people working in agriculture is declining and the productivity of
farming is increasing.
Which of the following is not a locational tendency of high tech industries?
A) Proximity to a major university.
B) Access to venture capital and entrepreneurs.
C) Areas with high quality of life reputations.
D) Inner-city, downtown locations close to central business districts.
E) Availability of high quality communication and transportation facilities
D) Inner-city, downtown locations close to central business districts.
Which of the following regions is not considered a major agglomeration of high
technology development?
A) Northern California.
B) Bangalore, India.
C) Dallas and Austin, Texas.
D) Beijing, China.
E) Athens, Greece.
E) Athens, Greece.
Which of the following cities is the highest order financial center?
A) Singapore.
B) London.
C) Sidney.
D) Lagos.
E) Chicago.
B) London
Which of the following factors helps to explain why automobile manufacturing
facilities are being built in the Southern United States as opposed to the traditional
locations of Michigan and other states in the Midwest?
A) Increasing cost of automobile maintenance.
B) Workers in the South are less likely to join a union.
C) Increasing competition from cars produced in China.
D) The largest population clusters in the US are in the South.
E) Hybrid technology exists in greater supplies in the South than other regions of the US
B) Workers in the South are less likely to join a union
Which of the following factors does not help explain why steel manufacturing
facilities in the United States have increasingly been located in a coastal city location?
A) The decreasing cost of transporting iron ore.
B) Scrap metal is widely available in city locales.
C) A large demand for steel exists in large coastal cities around the world.
D) Cheap sources of iron ore from foreign countries.
E) There is a shortage of iron ore in the interior United States.
E) There is a shortage of iron ore in the interior United States.
Using a global scale, which of the following regions would not be considered a
major manufacturing region during the 20th century?
A) Eastern China.
B) Northeast United States.
C) Western Europe.
D) Southern India.
E) Eastern Europe.
D) Southern India.
Which of the following economic sectors is least likely to occur in the core area of a
country?
A) Primary.
B) Secondary.
C) Quaternary.
D) Quinary.
E) Tertiary
A) Primary.
The largest sector of the economy in Postindustrial countries is
A) primary.
B) secondary.
C) quaternary.
D) quinary.
E) tertiary.
E) tertiary.
n the countries of China, Vietnam and India which of the following sectors of the
economy is losing the most people?
A) Primary.
B) Secondary.
C) Quaternary.
D) Quinary.
E) Tertiary.
A) Primary.
On a global scale, in which of the following sectors do most people work?
A) Primary.
B) Secondary.
C) Quaternary.
D) Quinary.
E) Tertiary.
A) Primary.
Which set of data best describes the overall structure of a highly developed country's
workforce in 2008 (% of workforce engaged in each sector)?
A) Primary 75%, secondary 15%, tertiary 10%.
B) Primary 25%, secondary 50%, tertiary 25%.
C) Primary 10%, secondary 30%, tertiary 60%.
D) Primary 50%, secondary 25%, tertiary 25%.
E) Primary 33%, secondary 33%, tertiary 34%.
C) Primary 10%, secondary 30%, tertiary 60%.
A peasant in rural China is most likely employed in which sector of the economy?
A) Primary.
B) Quaternary.
C) Quinary.
D) Secondary.
E) Tertiary
A) Primary.
Which of the following countries in 2008 has the largest percent of its workforce
engaged in the tertiary or service sector?
A) Peru.
B) Nigeria.
C) China.
D) Egypt.
E) Germany.
E) Germany
The Great Big Tennis Shoe Company makes its shoes with leather from a company in
Argentina, the shoelaces and thread come from companies in the United States, and the
rubber for the soles from Indonesia. The shoes are assembled in factories in China and
the shoes are ultimately sold in Europe and the United States. All of the following
factors help explain why this global assembly line process occurs except
A) improvements in data communication.
B) relatively low transportation costs due to containerization.
C) decreasing incomes in the developed regions of the world
D) relatively low labor costs in different regions of the world.
E) the durability of the good being processed.
C) decreasing incomes in the developed regions of the world
Which of the following demographic characteristics of development would not be
typical of a less developed country in 2008?
A) Low Crude Birth Rate (CBR).
B) Life expectancy of only 60 years.
C) Natural increase of less than 2%.
D) Twenty-five percent of the population below age 15.
E) High infant mortality rate of 57 deaths per 1000 births.
A) Low Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
According to the Human Development Index (HDI) which of the following would be
considered a social measurement of development?
A) Literacy rate.
B) Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
C) Energy production per capita.
D) Birth rate.
E) Life expectancy.
A) Literacy rate.
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