100 terms

Criminal Justice

A cncerted national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States is known as
the homeland security movement
According to the conflict model, wghat is deemed criminal activity is determined by
he most politically powerful segment of society
All of the following are considered psychoactive drugs, with the exception of
DNA evidence can be retrieved from all of the folloing except
Discretion in criminal justice is vested in all of the following except
Discretion is strongly associated with
the informal justice process
Fire marshals, alcohol beverage control officers, and fish,game and watercraft wardens are all ____ level law enforcement personnel.
High-tech crimes include
How many independent judicial systems are in the United States?
How many people are killed by gunfire each year in the U.S.?
The dual coute system
refers to federal and state court systems
The concepts of public order crimes is linked to the
concensus model
The ____ model represents an obstacle course rather than an assembly-line.
due process
Public order crime is sometimes refered to as
victimless crime
Prisons are administered by
Illegal gambling, prostitution, racketeering, and exortion are all examples of
organized crime
The due process model
protects individuals from the power of the state
The explosion in violent crimes in the late 1980's was attributed to the widespread sale and use of
crack cocaine
The fourth and largest layer of the wedding cake model of the criminal justie system is comprised of
The taking of personal property from another through the use of force or fear is
The text refers to the judge, prosecutors, and defense attorneys in a criminal court as the court's
work group
Trial by jury is relatively rare, only about ___ of those arrested for felonies go to trial.
Violent crimes include all of the following except
Which model assumes that a diverse group of people can share the same morals?
concensus model
Which of the following hold those convicted of minor crimes with relatively short sentences
All of the following are true according to Beccaria, except that
punishment must be designed to diagnose and treat the underlying causes of criminal behavior
An explanation of a happening or circumstance based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning is a
Biochemical explanation of misbehavior include all of the following except
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Classical theorists believe that a crime was an expression of a person's
rational decision making process
For the positivist, behavior is
beyond the control of the individual
Gottfredson and Hirschi believe that low self-control can be primarily attributed to
poor parenting
In Bentham's classical criminology, punishment aims to
give an incentive not to harm people
Labeling an individual
affects one's self concept
The idea that certain people are more likely to be victims of a crime that others is called
repeat victimization
The belief that illegal drug abusers are a danger to society and should be punished accordingly is consistent with
the criminal model of addiction
The Chicago School showed a correlation between crime and
neighborhood conditions
Strain theory has its roots in the concept of
Social conflict theory includes
issues of power and wealth
Social conflict theory focuses on
Routine activities theory includes all of the following elements except
repeat victimization
Reseachers who study the causes of crime are called
Rational choice theory is an updated version of
classical theory
Practitioners of life course criminology assert that the strongest predictors of future criminal behavior can be found by evaulating
childhood behaviors
The research published in Delinquency in a Birth Cohort asserted that ____ of juvenile offenders were responsible for the majority of violent crime
Theories are based on all of the following except
common sense
To understand the basics of addiction and physical dependence, one must understand the role of
dopamine in the brain
The theory that people adapt to the value of the subculture to which they belong is
cultural deviance theory
When considering the relationship between drugs and crime, the systemic model asserts that
violence is a by-product of the interpersonal relationships within the drug-using community
Which model holds that substance abusers are forced into petty crime to feed their addictions?
Which of the following is a social process theory?
Labeling theory
A term used to describe the actual amount of crime that takes place is
the dark figure of crime
An offense which is said to go against"natural law" is referred to as
Mala in se
approximately what percentage of all murders involve a male victim and a male perpetrator?
Civil law involves all of the folloowing except
beyond a reasonable doubt
Civil law in concerned with disputes between entities and
private individuals
Data for the NCVS is collected by
the census bureau
Flaws in the UCR cited in the text include all of the following except
lack of political support
In the UCR, the FBI presents crime data in all of the following ways except
in rank order by occurrence
Which of the following is an advantage of the NCVS?
it represents victimization rates, including those crimes not reported to the police
Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons for the high rate of offending by adolescent populations?
Which group are the most likely to be victims of homocide?
African Americans
Whih decade has been referred to as the "golden era" of low crime rates?
The strongest statisticl determinant of criminal behavior appears to be
The majority of Part I offenses committed in the U.S. are
property crimes
The crime spike in the 1980's and early 1990's is thought by some to be related to the introduction of which illegal drug?
The acronym NIBRS stands for
National Incident-Based Reporting System
The Uniform Crime Reports include
the number of crimes cleared
The Model Penal Code provides for ___ degrees of felony.
Since 2000 crime rates nationwide, in the U.S. are
relatively flat
Self-reported surveys collect crime data from
Self-report survey data are collected by all of the listed except
the census
Proof of guilt in a criminal case requires
proof beyond a reasonable doubt
Part II offenses include
all crimes recorded by the FBI that do not fall into the Part I category
Part II offenses do not include
Which of the following would be considered a mala prohibita offense?
Lex talionis is the concep of
Mens rea may be categorized as
purposeful, knowing, negligent, or reckless
A wrongful mental state is known as _______
mens rea
Alcohol intoxication can be used as a defense when
it is involuntary
All of the following are requirements for the defense of duress, except
the threat must be induced by a public official
Hate crime laws make a person's _____ an important attendant circumstance to his or her criminal act.
In criminal law, _______ prevents unfair practices such as forced confessions, denial od counsel, or unreasonable searches.
procedural due process
The model penal code sets forth
general principles of criminal responsibility
The legal function of the law is to
protect and punish
The ____ amendment requires states to adhere to the Bill of Rights.
The____amendment provides that no person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law.
The ____ amendment contains the prohibition against double jeopardy.
The ____ amendment protects against double jeopardy.
The M'Naughten rule is
a test for measuring sanity
Statutory law includes all of the following except
case law
Public backlash against the insanity defense led to enacting
"guilty but mentally ill" statutes
One of the earlist known examples of written law was
the Code of Hammurabi
Many states use the concept of _______ to impose harsher penalties on certain crimes.
attendant circumstances
The purpose of the social function of law is to
reflect values and norms of society
The rules, orders, and decisions of regulatory agencies are known as
administrative law
Ultimately, it is the _________ which determines whether an individual's due process has been violated
United States Supreme Court
Unlawful pressure brought to bear on a person, causing the person to perform an act that he or she would not otherwise perform is_______
Which of the following is not a justification defense?
involuntary intoxication
Which of the following is nor one of the functions of criminal law?
rehabilitate criminal offenders
_________ makes it possible to convict a person of a crime he or she did not actually commit.
accomplice liability