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Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)
Terms in this set (37)
What is net filtration rate?
-how much stuff you can push out
How can net filtration rate be regulated?
-through glomerular filtration rate
What is glomerular filtration rate?
-affects filtration pressure
-amount of filtrate produced by the kidneys each day
How does glomerular filtration rate affect filtration pressure?
-adjust blood flow
-alter available glomerular capillary surface area
How does GFR adjust blood flow?
-coordinated control of the diameter of the renal arteries
How does the GFR alter available glomerular capillary surface area?
What 3 factors control GFR?
What is renal autoregulation?
-ability to maintain renal blood flow despite normal changes in systemic blood pressure
Is kidney blood pressure regulated independently of systemic blood pressure?
-yes, only affected by systemic not regulated
-kidneys still need to filter at the same rate of body blood pressure
How does renal autoregulation work to regulate GFR?
What is the myogenic mehanism as blood pressure rises?
-stretching triggers smooth muscle fiber in afferent arteriole wall to contract
-afferent and efferent arterioles are equal in size, leads to decrease of blood pressure within the capsule
What is the myogenic mechanism as blood pressure drops?
-smooth muscle fibers relax and blood flow increases
-afferent is larger than efferent arteriole, leads to increase in blood pressure within the capsule
What is tubuloglomerular feedback?
-negative feedback by macula densa cells
-detects changes in Na+ and Cl- in filtrate
What is the job of tubuloglomerular feedback?
-regulate nitric oxide release from juxtaglomerular cells
-controls diameter of afferent arteriole
If nitric oxide is released..
-dilated afferent arteriole
If nitric oxide release is inhibited..
-constricted afferent arteriole
How does the nervous system regulate GFR?
-through autonomic nervous system
What is sympathetic stimulation to kidney?
-low and autoregulation prevails!
What happens to sympathetic stimulation when you exercise or there is a hemorrhage?
-neurons release norepinephrine
-afferent arterioles vasoconstrict
What happens if afferent arterioles vasoconstrict?
-reduced urine output conserves blood volume
-permits greater blood flow to other parts of the body
What is the most important factor in regulating GFR?
What hormones are involved in regulating GFR?
-atrial natriuetic peptide (ANP)
What is angiotensin 2?
-powerful vasoconstrictor for afferent and efferent arterioles
-result of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, so linked to hormonal regulation of tubular secretion and reabsorption
What does angiotensin 2 do?
-reduces renal blood flow and GFR
What is atrial natriuetic peptide (ANP)?
-increased surface for filtration increases GFR
-relaxes mesengial cells
When is angiotensin 2 released?
-when there's lower blood volume or pressure
When is atrial natriuetic peptide (ANP) released?
-reacts to raised blood pressure
What does the angiostensin-renin system do?
-regulate blood volume
-regulate blood pressure
What does increased H2O lead to?
-increased blood pressure
What is found in filtrate?
-water, not RBC's or medium or large plasma proteins
How much filtrate is produced each day?
How much filtrate is reabsorbed into the body?
What is the term used to describe what isn't eliminated from the body?
How is water reabsorbed?
How are solutes reabsorbed?
-active and passive transports
What do epithelial cells of tubules do?
How does tubular reabsorption help maintain homeostasis?
-removes excess or unneeded substances from the body
-secretion of H+ regulates blood pH
-secretion of other ions involved in electrolyte homeostasis
-eliminates metabolic byproducts and some drugs detected by urine analysis
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