PSY 360 Exam 3

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Recall the two types of aggression distinguished by psychologists.
affective and instrumental aggression
When attempting to determine if a certain behavior is aggressive, which question should be asked?
Did the person intend to hurt the other person?
What is MOST likely to occur when a monkey is considered to be overly aggressive?
It is rejected by other group members
Eros is the human inborn instinct to seek _____ and to _____.
pleasure; create
What was Freud's term for what he proposed is the human inborn instinct to aggress and destroy?
thanatos
Between 1993 and 2011, what percentage of murders in the United States were committed with firearms?
60-70%
Based on the cognitive neoassociation model, what make aggression more likely?
Anger or hostility; stressful conditions; and unpleasant conditions
What can mitigate the effects of hostile feelings and thoughts?
feelings of empathy for others; morals that forbid hurting others; and consideration of aversive consequences for oneself
What physiological finding was found in a study on the relationship between neuroscience and video games?
Playing violent video games leads to reduced P3 response.
Research shows that the _____ violence an individual watches, the _____ aggressive that person is likely to be.
more; more
Identify which factor is associated with high levels of aggression among preschoolers.
Children at this age are beginning to experiment with how much control they have over their environment.

Their ability to control their impulses is not fully developed.

Their ability to communicate their desires is not fully developed.
During what age range do males show a dramatic spike in the rate of violent crime offenses?
15-30
Who are MOST likely to commit acts of verbal aggression?
women
What type of abuser is narcissistic and likely to have a borderline personality organization?
a borderline abuser
Psychopathic abusers, overcontrolled abusers, and borderline abusers are personalities of:
male domestic violence offenders
A man is hired as a hit-man to kill people. What kind of aggression is this considered?
instrumental aggression
What differentiates violence from aggression?
It has lasting consequences and is also more severe than aggression.
When the hypothalamus kicks into high-arousal mode, the body prepares for which response?
fight or flight
What was Freud's term for what he proposed is the human inborn instinct to seek pleasure and to create?
eros
_____ levels of serotonin in the nervous system are correlated with _____ levels of aggression.
high; low
According to Berkowitz and LePage's (1967) class weapons effect study, what occurred when participants were both angered and in the presence of a gun and rifle?
p's became more aggressive
Aggression directed to a target other than the source of one's frustration is called:
displaced aggression
Paul was fired from his job. When Paul comes home, he feels angry and frustrated. When his wife asks him what he wants for dinner, Paul violently lashes out at her. What is Paul's reaction called?
displaced aggression
According to Strasburger (2007), the average American adolescent is exposed to approximately ________ acts of violence.
200,000
The more aggressive actions are _____, the more frequently an individual will turn to additional aggression in similar contexts.
reinforced
Men secrete less testosterone after the age of:
25
Low levels of what enzyme has been associated with violent and antisocial behavior?
MAO-A
Who are MOST likely to be physically aggressive?
men
What type of abuser often traps a woman in a cyclical pattern of escalating tension, hostility, and abuse, followed by contrition?
borderline abuser
Recall the reason for the causal relationship between alcohol and aggression.
Alcohol impairs higher-order thinking.

People expect alcohol to lead to aggression.

Alcohol consumption causes people to be less able to read social cues
The idea that natural selection led to greater tendencies to help close relatives than to help those with whom we have little genetic relation is referred to as:
kin selection
What kind of parenting style predicts greater prosocial behavior in children?
positive parenting
Neuroscience suggests that there are _____ neural responses to imagining what someone else is feeling when he or she is in pain as compared to imagining your own pain if you were in another person's place.
distinct
According to Batson, with what is the road to true altruism paved?
empathy
What is the negative state relief hypothesis?
the idea that people help in order to reduce their own distress
People are _____ likely to help others whey they focus on the suffering of a(n) _____ .
more; individual
A situation in which people don't distinguish between what's theirs and what is someone else's is called:
communal orientation
Which term is often associated with moral behavior?
cleanliness
Concepts related to prosocial behavior can be abstract and difficult to grasp. What helps people make sense of such concepts?
metaphors
Research has found that the _____ the city, the _____ likely people are to help.
bigger; less
How many states have enacted the "Good Samaritan" laws?
50
Interpreting the situation as an emergency is which step in the path to helping others?
step 2
Identify a characteristic of an altruistic personality.
the tendency to take personal responsibility for the welfare of others

the tendency to take another person's perspective

the tendency to experience empathy
_____ are more motivated to maintain traditional values and norms, while _____ are more motivated by egalitarian values.
conservatives; liberals
Which political group is MOST likely to vote in favor of social programs?
liberals
What is MOST likely to occur when someone has a few lasting and caring relationships?
They will feel satisfied and less motivated to form new relationships.
What is an outcome for people who have pleasant social interactions with a network of close friends, lovers, family members, and coworkers?
higher self-esteem, increased feelings of happiness, better mental health
The feeling that one is deprived of human social connections is referred to as:
Loneliness
Ally recently moved into a first floor apartment in a new apartment complex. Based on the propinquity effect, whom is Ally MOST likely to befriend?
The person that lives next door
Festinger and colleagues' (1950) research indicates that _____ is/are a major factor associated in the decision of whom to befriend.
proximity
The reward model of liking is MOST similar to the concept of:
classical conditioning
Research has indicated that averageness and symmetry in facial features are indicative of:
good physical health
The tendency to perceive a composite image of multiple faces that have been photographically averaged as more attractive that any individual face included in the composite is called the ________ effect.
averageness effect
In Western cultures, people see beautiful people as _____ compared with those of average attractiveness.
happier
What are women MORE likely than men to say that they look for in romantic partners, across cultures?
partners with financial status and resources
According to research, how many times per week do men think about sex?
60x per week
Based on the findings of a meta-analysis (Grabe et al., (2008)), the media have been found to have a powerful impact on women's self-perceptions, resulting in problems with coming to terms with their own shape and size, which has led to the development of:
eating disorders
According to Lynn Cooper and colleagues (1998), there are _____ core motives for having sex.
5
Identify a cost of short-term mating for women.
risk of disease
The time and effort that parents must devote in each child they produce is called:
parental investment
What each person does significantly influences what the other person does over long periods of time, is referred to as:
interdependence
What is it called when people have relationships with those in the media, such as celebrities, television characters, talk-show hosts, and athletes?
parasocial relationships
One-year-old Ella is dropped off at daycare for the first time. Ella becomes very upset when her mother leaves; however, she eventually calms down and engages in the program activities. When her mother returns at the end of the day, Ella is happy and runs to her mother to give her a big hug. What kind of attachment style is Ella exhibiting?
secure
What is the self-expansion model of relationships?
The idea that romantic relationships serve the desire to expand the self and grow.
Based on research, which country was MOST likely to incorporate suffering and sadness when expressing love?
China
What is it called when people generally seek and end of up in romantic relationships with someone similar to them in physical attractiveness?
the matching phenomenon
Research indicates that people are more satisfied in a relationship when the _____ outweigh(s) the _____.
benefits; costs
What countries reported a general acceptance of choosing to marry without loving their partner?
India and Pakistan
In which country are people MOST likely to report that family disapproval is an obstacle to marriage?
China
According to the stimulus-value-role theory, what occurs during the stimulus stage?
sharing small talk
Over the course of time, the frequency of intercourse for married couples in the United States:
declines
Couples with a realistic outlook about married life tend to be the:
happiest
Tara is involved in an unhealthy, dysfunctional relationship. However, she doesn't leave the relationship because she cannot imagine a better alternative to her current situation. Tara utilized which process?
the comparison level of alternatives
Choose the BEST example of a loyalty response.
"I am hoping things will get better."
According to Gottman, what factors are involved in stonewalling?
withdrawing or avoiding