Geo 142 Exam 2
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What are the two most common carbonate minerals?
calcite/calcium carbonate and dolomite
What are the two most common carbonate rocks?
limestone and dolostone
What is the dolomite "problem"?
dolostone ONLY forms in a few places and all those places are hella saline and only form on little crusts... how do we get giant think dolostone limestone layers? --> believed magnesium replaces calcium carbonate in previously deposited limestone
What is a eustatic sea level change and what might cause them to occur?
Change in volume of water in the ocean
increased spreading rate
What's Walther's Principle or Walther's Law of Succession of Facies?
Change in sea level up transgression → the sea level change causes environments to move laterally
What is a "sequence" and what do they record?
Fundamental units of interpretation
Records depositional environments/transgressions/regressions
What information does the Vail curve provide geologists?
Line that shows the average sea level → goes up and down
What is an epeiric sea?
Produced packages called "sequences"
What two characteristics provide better opportunities for an organism to become a fossil?
What is taphonomy?
What happens to the animal between the time of death and the preservation of the fossil → soft parts usually lost here
Know the taxonomic hierarchy in order
What are the five kingdoms?
What are the three superkingdoms or domains and what are their characteristics?
Bacteria: bacteria and blue/green algae
Archae: super extreme bacteria
Eucaryot : all else
What is the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
Prokaryotic cells: no nucleus, just blob of genetic material (asexual reproduction)
Eukaryotic cells: cell membrane, more complex organelles, a nucleus (allows for sexual reproduction = diversity)
What is evolution?
Change in group or organism over time → refers to change in population
What was Darwin's contribution to evolution?
came up with the theory
survival of the best suited for the environment
How did Mendel contribution to the theory of evolution?
genetics is mechanism for how change
What is DNA and how does it help in evolution?
DNA: instructions for 1) growth, 2) development 3) functioning
gave mechanism for genetic change
What are the three different method of reproduction that are utilized by organisms?
Alternating between sexual and asexual generations
Which type of reproduction is most beneficial to evolution?
Sexual because it allows for diversity
What are the three methods of asexual reproduction?
Binary fission: cells just split in two (single-celled)
Budding: parent sprouts appendage that grows into similar structure (coral/colonial)
Spores: alernate in generation (ferns)
What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis and which occurs in sexual reproduction?
Mitosis is when just split → results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus
Meiosis is type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in the parent cell by half and produces four gamete cells. sexual reproduction.
What is a mutation, how do they happen and how do they influence evolution?
Produces alterations in genes and DNA
Induced by chemicals or radiation
Mutations in sex cells are passed on to later generations
How does allopatric speciation work?
Geographic barrier → highway, colorado river, islands
What is macroevolution?
Adaptive radiation → evolved from different species to adapt to different needs
Ex. mammals filled the niches of the dinosaurs
Explain phyletic gradualism
Gradual progressive change by means of almost infinite number of small, subtle steps
Explain punctuated equilibrium
Sudden changes interrupting long periods of little change
What is phylogeny?
diagrammatic hypothesis about the history of the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms
What is a clade?
branch of a cladogram
How does a cladogram work?
Based on characteristics
Shows ancestor-descendant relationships
Doesn't put in time or geographic location
What is homology?
Similar body parts in different groups of organisms without regard to fucntion
Care about structure and origin
Homogolous organs/bones - come from common origin
Principal of Faunal Succession works.
If you find fossils in one rock and in another rock, you can conclude that they were deposited at the same (relative) time
Found everywhere all different types of environments, not restricted to one geographic location or single environment
confined to restricted area of hte environment in which they live
What does an organism need to have the potential to be a good index fossil?
limited in geologic time
How do modern analogs help with paleoecology?
Living organisms that help us interpret how ancient organisms lived and interacted with environment
What is a niche?
role of organism in enviornment → lifestyle, way it lives
environment where organism lives
organisms plus environment → entire system of physical, chemical, biological factors influencing organisms and environment
association of several species of organismism in part of habitat → the living part of the ecosystem
ancient communities! Don't necessarily have hte complete group
What are trophic levels?
Organisms in ocean: grouped according to method of getting food
produce own food/photosynthesis (plankton)
cannot produce their own food, must eat (fish)
breakdown organic material into form that can be eaten by other orgs (mushrooms)
takes nutrients form other orgs w/o killing (leech)
derive nutrients form dead organisms (vulture)
What is the pelagic realm?
What are the zones of the pelagic realm?
Neritic: water over the continental shelf: shallow
Oceanic: all the other water
small plants/animals that float, drift, swim weakly → jellyfish, plankton
swimming animals that live in the water column (squids, turtles, sharks)
What is the benthic realm?
lives in the sediment, burrows, churns sediment
lives on the top of sediment
can move around (trilobite, starfish, sand dollar)
attached to something (mussels, seaweed)
What is salinity?
How do we measure salinity?
Parts per thousand → measures all the dissolved materials in the water
seawater < 30 ppt
What are the three most abundant salts in the ocean?
What are the three most abundant salts in river water?
How do the tides work?
Gravity of the moon pulls on earth's water/oceans, pulls on surface of earth too
How does temperature change from the surface of the ocean to the bottom?
Temperature decreases with depth
How does salinity change from the surface of the ocean to the bottom?
Salinity increases with depth
How does density change from the surface of the ocean to the bottom?
Density increases with depth
place where temperatrue changes
place where salinity changes
place where density changes
What factors influences water temperature?
heat transfer from the atmosphere,
What is the photic zone?
Well illluminated area near the surface
What factors influence how deep light penetrates water?
Conditions of the water surface
Clarity of the water/sediment
weathered from the continents (silt/clay)
sediment produced by organisms (corals)
minerals that precipitate from sea water by chemical reactions
What's the CCD?
Carbon compensation depth
Particular depth in the ocean which affects where oozes may or may not accumulate
What are some of methods used to reconstruct ancient Earth climates?
glaciers --> O levels
how do we tell paleoclimate from fossils?
Coral = tropical climate
Marine mollusks that have spines and shells = warm water
Planktonic orgs with size/coiling direction → warm water = spirals clockwise
How do oxygen isotopes provide us with information about global climate?
O16 evaps bc it's lighter than O18 →ratios change
when there are glaciers there is more O18
When were the major extinctions that influenced life on Earth?
Devonian - 70% ocean invertebrates gone
Permian - 90% of all marine gone
Cretaceous - ¼ known families gone, dinosaurs/reptiles
What are the five principle components of the Solar System?
Sun, planets, moons, asteroids, comets
What are the terrestrial planets?
What are terrestrial planets' similarities?
Rocky, small, dense, metals
What are the Jovian planets?
What are Jovial plantes' similarities?
Large, gaseous, low density
What are the two most abundant elements in the Sun?
Hydrogen and Helium
What are some of the benefits the Sun provides to Earthy inhabitants?
Evaporation of water! → creates clouds/precipitation and erosion
Uneven heating → wind and currents
Variations in heat (distance from sun during elliptical orbit) = continental glaciers
Sun + moon → tides
What are the maria?
Large dark areas covered by basaltic lava flows
Which is older: maria or the highlands?
How did the moon form?
chunk of earth hit, accreted
You should be able to briefly discuss the origin of the universe.
Solar nebular theory/cold accretion model → earth originally homogenous mass of materials/accreting dust particles
As it spun/got larger → developed internal layering
Denser materials went center while the lighter were pulled to top
what is the red shift?
the displacement of spectral lines toward longer wavelengths (the red end of the spectrum) in radiation from distant galaxies and celestial objects. red = moving away
origin of the solar system using the solar nebula hypothesis.
Solar nebular theory/cold accretion model → homogenous mass of materials/accreting dust particles --> rotating = differentiate materials (light on outside, dense on inside)
What evidence supports solar nebula hypthesis?
We know layers bc s waves don't travel through liquids
Need volatile gases on earth → if complete melting occurred, then these gases would have been gone
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