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BIOL 623 Exam 2
Terms in this set (41)
indication: hypothyroidism, Pituitary Thyrotropin (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, TSH)
MOA: diffuse into the cell nucleus and bind to thyroid receptor proteins attached to DNA. This hormone nuclear receptor complex activates gene transcription and synthesis of messenger RNA and cytoplasmic proteins.
indication: The indication or usage of this medication is to reduce elevated Total-C, LDL-C, ApoB, nonHDL-C, and triglycerides and to increase HDL-C in adults that have primary
hyperlipidemia or mixed dyslipidemia.
MOA: Mechanism of action for rosuvastatin is that it is a competitive and selective inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, a rate limiting enzyme that converts 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A to a precursor of cholesterol, mevalonate.
brand: Ventolin HFA
indications: Treatment or prevention of bronchospasm in patients aged 4 years and
older with reversible obstructive airway disease.
MOA: Activates beta2-adrenergic receptors on airway smooth muscle leads to the activation
of adenyl cyclase and to an increase in the intracellular concentration of cyclic-3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP). This increase of cyclic AMP leads to the activation of protein kinase A, which inhibits the phosphorylation of myosin and lowers intracellular ionic calcium concentrations, resulting in relaxation.
indications: treatment of gastroesophagel reflux disease. reduce risk of gastric ulcers.
MOA: Esomeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that suppresses gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the H+/K+-ATPase in the gastric parietal cell.
brand: Advair Diskus
indications: used for asthma and maintenance of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
MOA: a corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory activity. Binds to glucocorticoid receptors.
indications: central nervous system stimulant in treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and binge eating disorder.
MOA: Lisdexamfetamine is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine. Amphetamines are non-catecholamine sympathomimetic amines with CNS stimulant activity. The exact mode of therapeutic action in ADHD and BED is not known.
indications: neural pathetic pain associated with spinal cord injury and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. fibromyalgia, and onset seizures.
MOA: binds with alpha2-delta site, an auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels, in central nervous system tissues.
brand: Spiriva Handihaler
indications: used in patients with emphysema
MOA: Spiriva is an antimuscarinic agent, also known as an anticholinergenic, that binds to the muscarinic M3 receptors located in the smooth muscle of the airways to induce bronchdilation. It has a competitive and reversible antagonism nature. It mostly induces a site specific effect.
indications: improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
MOA: DPP-4 inhibitor, which slows the inactivation of incretin hormones that are responsible for glucose homeostasis.
brand: Lantus Solostar
Indications: glycemic control in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus
MOA: lower blood glucose by stimulating peripheral glucose uptake, especially by skeletal muscle and fat, and by inhibiting hepatic glucose production. Insulin inhibits lipolysis and proteolysis, and enhances protein synthesis.
indictications: reduce systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure.
MOA: forms free nitric oxide that activates guanylate cyclase which increase guanosine 3'5' monophosphate (cyclic GMP) in smooth muscle and other tissues. which causes dephosphorylation of myosin light chains, which regulate the contractile state in smooth muscle, and result in vasodilatation.
indications: to inhibit the influx of calcium ions during membrane depolarization of cardiac and vascular smooth muscle.
MOA: produces relaxation of coronary vascular smooth muscle and dilation of both large and small coronary arteries at drug levels which cause little or no negative inotropic effect. The resultant increases in coronary blood flow (epicardial and subendocardial) occur in ischemic and nonischemic models and are accompanied by dose-dependent decreases in systemic blood pressure and decreases in peripheral resistance.
indications: treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in adults to improve exercise ability and delay clinical worsening.
MOA: inhibitor of cGMP specific phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) in the smooth muscle of the pulmonary vasculature, where PDE-5 is responsible for degradation of cGMP.
indications: indicated for the treatment of mild to moderate heart failure and for the control of resting ventricular response rate in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation.
MOA: inhibits NaK-ATPase
indications: reduces breakdown of cAMP
MOA: inotropic action due to increased intracellular calcium via increased influx and SR release; also vasodilation
indications: for inotropic support in the short-term treatment of adults with cardiac decompensation due to depressed contractility resulting either from organic heart disease or from cardiac surgical procedures.
MOA: stimulation of the ÃŸ receptors of the heart while producing comparatively mild chronotropic, hypertensive, arrhythmogenic, and vasodilative effects.
indications: assessment of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients 6 years of age or older who do not have clinically apparent asthma.
MOA: The precise mechanisms through which inhaled mannitol causes bronchoconstriction are not known.
indications: is a medication used to treat glaucoma, epilepsy, altitude sickness, periodic paralysis, and heart failure.
MOA: Acetazolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, hence causing the accumulation of carbonic acid. Since Na & HCO3 reabsorption in PCT depend on CA, the CA inhibitors lead to their blocked
indications: diuresis, increased blood flow, and rennin secretion—appear to be due to an action of caffeine at adenosine receptors
MOA: Normally, adenosine STIMULATES POTASSIUM SECRETION by tubule cells. The antagonist blocks secretion.
indications: Pulmonary edema in which other drugs are ineffective, used to treat hypercalcemia, left heart failure
MOA: inhibits Na reabsorption on the lumenal surface of the thick ascending limb of loop of Henle, and indirectly inhibits calcium reabsorption
indications: classic diuretic used in hypertension, congestive heart failure (CHF), corticosteroid/ estrogen therapy and renal-caused edema
MOA: inhibits Na/Cl transport(NCC1) on
lumenal surface of distal convoluted tubule
indications: synthetic steroid (prevents K secretion)
MOA: by blocking aldosterone receptors
MOA: inhibits release of ADH/ vasopressin from the posterior pituitary
indications: for obesity
MOA: inhibits lipase, reducing triglyceride absorption
MOA: neutralizing stomach acid that result in an increasing pH in the stomach.
brand: Tagamet HB
indications: acid reducer
MOA: H2-receptor antagonist
Prevents stimulation of parietal cell by the histamine
secreted by ECL cells (enterochromaffin-like cells) 2) Reduces the effects of gastrin & ACh on parietal cells
MOA: mostly block peripheral receptors at GI nerve endings
MOA: opioid agonist
is a stimulant and increases alertness, with autonomic effects such as peripheral vasoconstriction.
antidote to muscarinic excess
action: antagonist to NM receptors
indications: Induces reversible paralysis (temporary)
indication: lazy eye/ cervical dystonia-severe shoulder & neck spasm due to cervical spinal nerve damage/ cosmetic
MOA: Blocks release of acetylcholine; induces paralysis
indication: used in treating glaucoma
MOA: Both bind to AChE and prevent binding of Ach
MOA: inhibit thyroid peroxidase reactions/ blocks iodine organifications/ inhibit peripheral denomination of T4 and T3
indications: preparation for surgical thyroidectomy
MOA: inhibit organification and hormone release/ reduce the size and vascularity of the gland
MOA: radiation destruction of thyroid parenchyma
MOA: inhibition of beta adrenoreceptors/ inhibit T4 and T3 conversion
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