Anth 347 Quiz 3 w/new professor Nancy P.

Ndee/Western Apache
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Terms in this set (50)
In pre-reservation times, (a) provided 10-40% of annual calories, depending upon location.

In the early to (b), many families relied more and more intensively on horticulture to support their families.

By the last third of the 20th century, many factors, including (c), (d), and changing (e) and (f) environments have led to a dramatic (g) in family-based farming.
(a) of (b) xx to (c) ranchers helped (d) learn to be skilled cowboys and successful ranchers, but (e) severely damaged the range and encouraged (f) encroachment that diminished the WMAT's available grasslands.(a) Leases (b) trust land (c) non-Indian (d) Apache (e) overgrazing (f) juniperExample of a White Mountain Apache Indiana Reservation HabitatApache TroutWMAT Tribal Council took action to protect the Apache Trout in (a), (b) years before the Endangered Species Act was passed by Congress. Tribe continues to be a key contributor to the restoration of the species.(a) 1955 (b) 12Efforts have been made at land (a) at White Mountain, but maintaining improvements has proven very difficult (next three slides show Lofer Cienega, before and after treatment, and again a decade after active treatment ended).(a) restoration slides show different stages of the cienega; a mess, fixed, then a mess again.Some traditions remain strong in the Apache community. The (a), or (b), marks a girl's coming of age. The dance requires significant (c) of (d) and (e) from the girl's family and her co-sponsors, but many girls complete the ceremony each year.(a) Na'ii'ees (b) Sunrise Dance (c) investments (d) money (e) time(a) is a complicated place for White Mountain Apache people. It was locus for (b) control that (c) the Apache way of life, but its presence also helped the (d) to retain a significant fraction of their aboriginal homelands. Since assuming control of the site from the BIA in 2007, we have taken big steps toward making the fort a place that benefits the community.(a) Fort Apache (b) federal (c) decimated (d) NdeeBIABureau of Land ManagementBasketball is big! What high school?Alchesay High SchoolGroups like Apache Mothers Against (a) give hope for the future.(a) MethThe DinéChildren of Changing WomanA Dine Perspective and World View*Land *Values and philosophy *Journeys through time and space (history) *Individuals, families, clans and The People walking the Beautiful PathThe Diné: The Great Farmers, The Great Sheepherders*The People were given the name Diné when they were created by the Holy People. *The Diné were first created in the east direction, at a place called Hayoołkaał Bee Hogan and Haash ch'ééh Hooghan. In the West direction as time went on Earth People were recreated by Changing Woman. *Diné - people with five fingers or the children of the Holy People.The Dine*The largest American Indian nation in North America *Population in 2002 of more than 290,000 people in 2015 - 300,460 enrolled tribal members *History is the story of land lost and land gained; of hard times and good times; of population loss and population gain *Of striving for Hozho and meetings the needs of The PeopleNavajos are related to:ApacheNavajos speak aAthabascan languageImportant Navajo value:reprosity stewardship holism intenation order in universeHozhogood can overcome evilThe Navajos are the people whofarm fields adjoining a ravineNavajo call themselvesDine'Dine' meanspeople with five fingers vs spiritual beingsNavajo history beginswith the creation of earthNavajo acquired what animals from the Spanish and Pueblos?Sheep and Horses "Sheep is Us"Two historical events on the Dine''s journey1880 Last Navajo Slave fired Pueblo Revolt 1680Apache Groups*Kiowa-Apache *Jicarilla Llaneros and Olleros *Western Apache White Mountain, Tonto, Cibicue, San Carlos *(South) Central Apaches Chiricahuas *(South) Eastern Apaches Lipan, MescaleroReligious & Cultural Profile*Bands and matrilocal residence, bilateral ancestry for most except Western Apache *Generally seasonal migrations, but Jicarilla & some Western Apache had light agriculture *Extensive knowledge of the land, plants, animals, topography and geography *Wickiups and tipis *Giver of Life created the Universe *White Painted Woman/Changing Woman *Girls Puberty Ceremony Rebirth, renewal, stages of life Health, good relations, strength, sustenance *Shamans, priests, curing ceremonies, and chantsApache Ceremonials*Crown Dancers, Gaan *Similar to katsinas *Part of Apaches communication with deities, the *Creator, requests of health and prosperity, puberty ceremonies, rain, etc. *Sand paintings *Songs/chants similar to NavajosAmerican Era*Invasion of homelands 1700s through creation of American forts in 1840s & 1850s *Spanish settlers attacked, Jicarillas responded *Mexican Land Grant *1852 Treaty *Alliances with Southern Utes *Intermarriage with Ute & Pueblos *Drought, disease, gold strikes, Treaty reservation replaced by several E.O. reservations 1874-1900*Early Reservation Era*Assimilation policy Boarding school Dawes Act Religion Language *Disease *IRA government Constitution Ended allotment Business councilThe Modern EraLivestock, Oil & Gas Recreation & lodge Health care and improved education Language Program Puberty Ceremony Bear Dance Arts & Crafts MuseumWestern Apache*Post 1848 began 40 years of warfare against military *White Mtn and Cibicue saw violence and sought peace with military, moved to Ft. Apache in 1868 *1871 Camp Grant Massacre of San Carlos Apaches by whites and T.O. *President Grant ordered concentration onto four reservations Ft. Apache Camp Verde (Tonto and Yavapai) Camp Grant (San Carlos and some White Mtn) Chiricahua Res in W. NMWestern Apache 22 *Five Groups or "subtribes" (bands existed within each "subtribe" based on geographical location and place-names) White Mountain Eastern, Western, Coyoteros San Carlos Apache Peaks, San Carlos, Aravaipa, Pinal *Tonto Apache (northern and southern) Mazatzal, Bald Mt, Oak Creek, Mormon Lake, Fossil Creek, Yayapais *Cibicue Carrizo, CibicueWestern Apache 33 *1874 changed policy and consolidated Arizona Apaches onto San Carlos and New Mexico Apaches onto Mescalero Res *Geronimo escaped and went south, surrendered in 1888 *Post 1888 was time of brutal deprivation, disease, malnutrition, and forced assimilationModern Era*1954 White Mountain began tourism industry Hon Dah Casino and Resort Trophy Elk World Class Rodeo *San Carlos opened Apache Gold Casino, and Cultural Center 1.8 mil acres Puberty CeremonyExpatriate Apaches*All San Carlos Apaches sent to Florida: "Renegade" Apaches sent to Ft. Pickens (west) while their families and first group to surrender went to Ft. Marion (east) in St. Augustine *119/498 died in Ft. Marion *All transferred to Alabama, then Ft. Sill OK in 1894 *1912 allowed to "return" to present Mescalero reservation 187 went to Mescalero 84 remained in OK *Whitetail districtNumunuLords of the Southern Plains*** IS NAVAJO LIFE"SHEEP "OvergrazingStarting as early as 1893, the Navajo tribal range was showing definite signs of overgrazing. It was until the late 1920's that any specific plan of attack was proposed for the overgrazing problem. Not only was the Navajo Reservation targeted but problems were also seen on a national scale due to drought of the early thirties.Overgrazing continuedBy 1938, the Navajo tribal range was stocked with estimates of two million sheep. Soil erosion progressed at rapid rates where the Navajo goat had to move to higher hillsides, there was enlarging arroyos, and shorter grass. The Navajo were soon spilling into neighborhood off-reservation communities in four states to feed their livestock.The Navajo Reservation covered:7,400 square milesSo what must be done to conserve the Navajo Reservation? In 1933, the Soil Erosion Service was organized through the recommendations of the Soil Conservation Advisory Committee of the U.S. Govt. Their goal was to reduce one million sheep units on the reservation by about 50% and to create demonstration areas which were set aside for the Navajo to learn proper stocking, proper animal husbandry, with specific carrying capacities and all done in only two years.