Bio 1409 Chapter 14 Speciation and Extinction
Terms in this set (85)
The process by which new species originate
The process by which species cease to exist
Islands provide ideal opportunities to study speciation because
organisms cannot easily immigrate and emigrate
Island species are especially vulnerable to extinction because _____ may destroy a small island population.
All of the answer choices are correct
The types of living organisms on Earth have changed over time, new species have originated, and existing species have disappeared. These are examples of
The scientist given credit for devising the two-word naming system is
Ernst Mayr defined a biological species as a
population or group of populations that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
Key reproductive isolating mechanisms are distinguished in that
prezygotic isolation acts upon parents of two species, and postzygotic isolation acts on the offspring from two species.
Which of the following is not a type of prezygotic reproductive isolation?
The type of reproductive isolation in which two populations live in the same habitat but remain isolated from one another due to one being active during the daytime only and the other being active only during the night is
The type of reproductive isolation in which offspring are infertile because their chromosomes cannot align correctly during meiosis due to a different number of chromosomes being inherited from each parent is
The type of reproductive isolation in which the two populations are separated due to their habitat is
The type of reproductive isolation in which two populations are separated due to the sperm cells of one not being able to fertilize the egg cells of the other is
Postzygotic reproductive isolation prevents
genetic exchange between populations by selecting against hybrid offspring.
A vine plant in Georgia, U.S.A, is known as Gelsemium spp., and has been used as an herbal medicine. Only three species are known. Two of them, in Georgia, are found in the same overlapping areas of habitat. Two species of Gelsemium have similar insect pollinators, but pollination occurs for Gelsemium sempervirens from mid January to late March, and for Gelsemium rankinii from late March to mid April. This represents
A flowering vine plant, Gelsemium spp., includes two separate species that formerly occupied a large, common habitat area, and currently occupy overlapping areas in the southeastern United States. Gelsemium sempervirens and Gelsemium rankinii have reproductive isolation, which has allowed them to exist as separate species due to
In the Grand Canyon, in the southwestern U.S., there are many species of squirrels, including the Albert Squirrel and a "subspecies," the Kaibab Squirrel (isolation is not complete, according to the biological species definition by Ernst Mayr). The two populations of squirrels can interbreed to produce fertile offspring, but the populations exist on different portions of the rim of the Grand Canyon, separated by the canyon and the Colorado River. This is an example of
The spatial arrangements that may help cause speciation are
sympatric, parapatric, and allopatric
Polyploidy means having
three or more sets of chromosomes
Polyploidy is common in _____ species.
A tetraploid (i.e., four sets of chromosomes) plant species is typically ______________, whereas a plant species with three sets of chromosomes is typically ______________. This difference is due to whether or not meiosis can be completed.
The idea that evolution proceeds in small, incremental changes over many generations is
The idea that evolution proceeds with long periods of stasis with relatively brief bursts of fast evolutionary change is
In another chapter, you will learn of evidence that primates, especially fossil species in the Hominin group that apparently led to our current Homo sapiens sapiens species identity. Many of the fossils of pre-human species have been found where geologic evidence indicates changes in climate, habitat, and terrain. The theoretical relationships among the earlier "human" populations in response to changes, support
punctuated equilibrium, allowing selection that favored different traits of body form.
Species such as mice have a better chance of surviving sudden environmental change than elephants because elephants
reproduce much more slowly than mice
The rate of background extinctions is calculated to be _____ species per year per million species.
0.1 to 1.0
By using fossil evidence, paleontologists have concluded that most species exist from _____ years before becoming extinct.
one million to 10 million
The impact of a large meteorite with Earth would have most likely caused mass extinctions by
creating large clouds of dust that blocked out sunlight and destroying plant life.
It is believed that the two main reasons for mass extinctions in Earth's history have been
impact of Earth with a large, celestial body and shifting of Earth's continents
The topics of focus, within systematics, address the
two main areas of describing and classifying organisms, and studying their evolutionary relationships.
A biology student has captured, measured, and released many ground squirrels from an upland, rocky, wooded area, and many similar ground squirrels from a shrub area in soft soil near a stream. She is measuring skull dimensions, leg and claw lengths and shapes, and other traits of the ground squirrels from each collection area hoping to determine if the two populations are different species. She is involved in
In context of the information they present, phylogenies are
both evolutionary trees, depicting species' relationships, and visual proposals based on examination of traits.
A group of species at any taxonomic rank in a phylogeny is a
Spiny, succulent plants in the Americas are usually in the Cactaceae family, while nearly identical plants in the Mediterranean and northern Africa are in the Euphorbiaceae family. A phylogeny based solely on morphology
can lead to proposals of inaccurate relationships, because of convergent evolution
Starting from the root of a phylogenetic tree, any node that is shown further from the root, than other nodes, means
the species (or groups represented) diverged most recently from a common ancestor
The outgroup in this cladogram of vertebrate animals is the amphibians
Mammals diverged from a common ancestor of all these vertebrates more recently than crocodiles diverged from a common ancestor of birds.
Lizards and mammals are proposed in this cladogram to be more closely related than lizards and birds.
Identify the rule (rules) that was (were) correctly applied in producing this cladogram
All of these rules were correctly used
A sterile mule is produced by mating a horse and a donkey. From this observation you could conclude
that horses and donkeys are different species
Bacteria cannot be classified using the biological definition of a species for which reason?
Bacteria are asexual
A sterile mule is produced by mating a horse and a donkey. This is an example of ____ reproductive isolation.
If a sheep and goat are mated, their offspring dies as an embryo. This is an example of ____ reproductive isolation.
Hawthorn maggot flies that breed on native hawthorns or introduced European apples can mate in the lab, but rarely mate in the wild. This is an example of ____ reproductive isolation.
Some flowers bloom in the spring, while others bloom in the summer. This is an example of ____ reproductive isolation.
Birds use specific songs, coloring, and mating dances to attract mates of their species (sexual selection). This is an example of ____ reproductive isolation.
Tortoises colonizing the different Galàpagos islands and evolving into different species is an example of ____ speciation.
The observation that freshwater habitats account for only 1% of the Earth's water, and they are home to 36% of the known species of fish is due to ____ speciation.
The sea snail, Littorina saxatilis, is found on the coast of northern Spain. The snails further upshore are large with heavily ridged and banded shells, and share a border with the snails further downshore that are smaller with smooth, unbanded shells. If the upshore and downshore snails were to become separate species, this would be an example of _____ speciation.
The evidence that one species of finch migrated to a Galàpagos island, and evolved into two species now found on the same island, feeding on different food sources, is an example of ____ speciation.
Formation of a tetraploid plant from two different diploid parental species of plants is an example of ____ speciation.
Formation of a tetraploid plant from two different diploid parental species of plants is an example of
Scientists have a very complete fossil record showing the evolution of horses over millions of years, with the legs becoming longer and the teeth larger, as ancestors of the modern horse adapted from living in forest to grasslands. This is an example of
A single common ancestor evolving into the current 28 species of silversword plants found among the Hawaiian islands is an example of
The Caribbean islands are home to more than 150 species of anole lizards. How might so many species have evolved from a single common ancestor?
They adapted to fill unoccupied niches
Conservation biologists are often concerned that when the population size of an endangered species becomes too small, it is at risk of extinction for which reason?
They may be more susceptible to changes in the environment or disease
Three species of tigers have gone extinct due to overharvesting or habitat destruction. This is an example of
increased extinction rate by human activity
Based on the cladogram, birds are most closely related to
Birds and mammals are both warm-blooded, and are
Bumblebees pollinate M. lewisii, whereas hummingbirds prefer the M. cardinalis. If, by chance, a hummingbird carries M. cardinalis pollen to M. lewisii, the resulting hybrid offspring are viable. M. lewisii and M. cardinalis are different species due to
prezygotic barriers to reproduction
According to the definition of a biological species, M. lewisii and M. cardinalis can interbreed to produce viable offspring, but are different species for which reason?
They do not breed in the wild
When biologists Bradshaw and Schemske studied the genetic makeup of Mimulus lewisii and Mimulus cardinalis, what hypothesis were they testing?
Mutation in a single gene could cause a change in flower color and thus pollinator.
How did Bradshaw and Schemske alter the colors in generations of M. lewisii and M cardinalis, to test pollinator selection?
by mating M. lewisii and M cardinalis and then crossing the hybrids to select for the desired color
From the data shown in the table, what can be concluded about the flower preferences of bumblebees?
They prefer pink flowers in both species of monkeyflower.
From the data shown in the table, what can be concluded about the flower preferences of hummingbirds?
They strongly prefer M. cardinalis, no matter the color of the flowers
Given the data of pollinator responses to the hybrid colors of monkeyflowers, which of the following is the most likely result, if researchers accidentally allowed M. cardinalis hybrids (or real mutants of the YUP gene) to be transplanted in the wild, in the same areas as M. lewisii and M. cardinalis are found.
Wild bumblebees may pollinate the hybrids (or mutants) M. cardinalis nearly as much as they do M. lewisii.
The research by Bradshaw and Schemske supports the hypothesis that a change in just one gene locus may have jump-started speciation in Mimulus. If so, this would be an example of
In the wild-type purple monkeyflower (i.e., M. lewisii), the dominant YUP allele prevents carotenoids from forming, leaving the pinkish-purple anthocyanin pigments to provide the petal color. A wild-type scarlet monkeyflower (i.e., M. cardinalis) has which genotype?
When the researchers crossed M. lewisii and M. cardinalis, the hybrids had which genotype?
In systematics, a group of organisms consisting of a common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendents is defined as a
A group consisting of a common ancestor and all of its descendants is a
The correct sequence of taxonomic categories beginning with domain in descending order are
domain - kingdom - phylum - class - order - family - genus - species
A biological species is defined as a population whose members can interbreed.
Today, scientists can deduce evolutionary relationships by DNA sequence analysis.
Mules are considered to be a distinct species because they produce fertile offspring when mated.
Among evolutionary biologists, the idea of sympatric speciation can be controversial.
"Missing" transitional forms may not be present in the fossil record because of poor preservation of biological material and simply because scientists have not discovered all there is to discover.
The speciation that occurred in the islands of the Greater Antilles (i.e., Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and Hispaniola) with lizards called anoles is an example of adaptive radiation.
The larger the initial population size, the less likely it will endure a major environmental change.
A cladogram depicts species' relationships based on descent from shared ancestors.
Each branch on a cladogram is a clade distinguished by characteristics that appear only in its members.
A polyphyletic group is a group of species that excludes the most recent common ancestor.
A monophyletic group is a group of organisms consisting of a common ancestor and all of its descendants, also known as a clade.
Systematics utilizes taxonomy and proposed evolutionary relationships to organize life's diversity into groups that reflect evolutionary history.
For given species or groups of species, some taxonomists and evolutionary biologists disagree on which common ancestry and evolutionary relationships may exist. They may hypothesize different common ancestors (nodes) or descendents (clades). Still, where fossil, or phenotype, or DNA sequence, or other factors make decisions difficult in preparing the cladogram, researchers commonly ensure their interpretation is the most
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