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DNA & RNA
Terms in this set (27)
Thymine, adenine, guanine, cytosine. T with A, and G with C
What are the four nitrogen bases of DNA? What are they paired with?
Phosphate sugars and deoxyribose
What makes up the "backbone" of DNA?
The phosphate and nitrogen base
What part of the backbone do the bases bond?
Hydrogen bonds and the sugar backbone. They're stable enough to hold together, yet easy enough to pull apart (like a zipper!)
What types of bonds connect complementary bases? Why is it useful in the replication of DNA?
Phosphate, sugar, and nitrogen base
What are the components of a nucleotide?
Watson and Crick, that DNA is found in the nucleus of the cell, double stranded, in the shape of a double helix, composed of nucleotides
Who is often given credit for discovering the structure of DNA? What did they first suggest?
What do we call the process of copying DNA?
DNA is double stranded while RNA is single stranded
How are nucleotides in DNA different from RNA?
1. DNA is double stranded, RNA is single stranded
2. DNA is deoxyribose while RNA is ribose
3. DNA contains thymine while RNA contains uracil
What are the three major differences between DNA and RNA?
mRNA- takes instructions from the nucleus how proteins should be made and delivers it to the cytoplasm.
rRNA- attaches to the mRNA and uses the instructions to assemble the amino acids in the right order.
tRNA- delivers amino acids to the ribosome to be assembled into a protein.
What are the three types of RNA? How do they contribute to the creation (synthesis) of a protein?
A codon is a group of three nitrogen bases in mRNA that code for one amino acid. The code can be translated into an amino acid name. tRNA carries anticodons that connect to the codons in the ribosomes
What is a codon and how does it code for a specific amino acid?
A chemical bond formed between two molecules
What is a peptide bond?
What is another name for a polypeptide?
If they aren't out in the correct order, they could code for something different. Genetic mutations could occur
Why is it important for amino acids to be put in the right order, what could happen if they're put in an incorrect order?
First, the two strands of DNA are unzipped by the hydrogen bonds being broken down that hold the nitrogen bases together. The replication happens going away from the 5 end. The leading end (5 end) copies all at once while the 3 end (lagging) copies in segments. The end result: two new strands with each having one old strand and one new copied strand
Explain the process of DNA replication
Long polymers chains composed of amino acids
What are proteins?
The order and types of amino acids
What determines the shape of a protein?
What determines the action of a protein?
In the nucleus, enzymes make an RNA copy of a portion of a DNA strand
What happens during transcription?
Transcription- results in the formation of one single-stranded RNA molecule
DNA replication- results in a double stranded DNA molecule
What is the main difference between transcription and DNA replication?
The process of converting the information in a sequence of nitrogenous bases in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in proteins
What is translation?
In cytoplasm, a ribosome attaches to the strand of mRNA like a clothespin clamped onto a clothesline
What happens in translation: from mRNA to protein?
It starts with AUG
How can you tell when it is mRNA?
To bring amino acids to where they're needed; to the correct to the correct order
What is the role of tRNA?
When it comes across a stop codon
When does the protein release off of the ribosome?
The two strands of DNA are?
When does DNA replication occur?
Recommended textbook explanations
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
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