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alcohol intoxication

disinhibition, emotional lability, slurred speech, ataxia. SERUM GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSFERASE (GGT). Treatment is naltrexone and disulfiram

alcohol withdrawal

Tremor, tachycardia, hypertension, malaise, nausea, seizures, delerium tremens, tremulousness, agitation, HALLUCINATIONS (INCLUDING TACTILE). Tx for DT is benzodiazepines

opioid intoxication

CNS depression, nausea and vomiting, constipation, pupillary constriction, seizures. Tx is naloxone and naltrexone

opioid withdrawal

anxiety, insomnia, anorexia, sweating, dilated pupils, piloerection, fever, rhinorrhea, stomach cramps and diarrhea, yawning. Treatment is naloxone+ buprenorphine and methadone

Barbiturate intoxication


barbiturate withdrawal

anxiety, seizures, delerium, life threatening cardiovascular collapse

benzodiazepine intoxication

greater safety margin. Amnesia, ataxia, somnolence, minor respiratory depression. Additive effects with alcohol. Treatment is flumazenial

benzodiazepine withdrawal

rebound anxiety, seizures, tremor, insomnia

amphetamine intoxication

psychomotor agitation, impaired judgement, pupillary dilation, hypertension, tachycardia, euphoria, prolonged wakefulness and attention, cardiac arrhythmias, delusions, hallucinations, fever

amphetamine withdrawal

post-use crash including depression, lethargy, headache, stomach cramps, hunger, hypersomnolence

cocaine intoxication

euphoria, psychomotor agitation, impaired judgement, tachycardia, pupillary dilation, hypertension, HALLUCINATIONS (INCLUDING TACTILE), paranoid ideations, angina, sudden cardiac death. Treatment is benzodiazepines

cocaine withdrawal

post-use crash including severe depression and suicidality, hypersomnolence, fatigue, malaise, severe psychological craving

caffeine intoxication

restlessness, insomnia, increased diuresis, muscle twitching, cardiac arrhythmias

caffeine withdrawal

headache, lethargy, depression, weight gain

nicotine intoxication

restlessness, insomnia, anxiety, arrhythmias

nicotine withdrawal

irritability, headache, weight gain, craving. Treatment is bupropion/varenicline

PCP intoxication

BELLIGERENCE, impulsiveness, fever, psychomotor agitation, vertical and horizontal nystagmus, tachycardia, ataxia, homicidality, psychosis, delerium

PCP withdrawal

Depression, anxiety, irritability, restlessness, anergia, disturbances of thought and sleep

LSD intoxication

Marked anxiety or depression, delusions, visual hallucinations, FLASHBACKS, pupillary dilation

Marijuana intoxication

Euphoria, anxiety, paranoid delusions, perception of slowed time, impaired judgment, social withdrawal, increased appetite, dry mouth, hallucinations

Marijuana withdrawal

irritability, depression, insomnia, nausea. Most symptoms peak in 48 hours and last for 5-7 days. Can be detected in urine up to 1 month after last use

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