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production of ammonia or ammonium compounds in the decomposition of organic matter by bacteria
(nitrogen cycle step 3) plant absorbs ammonium (NH3) and nitrate ions (NO3) through roots
# and variety of organisms in an area (ecosystem) more of it leads to better adaptability and chances of survival
process where concentration of toxic substances increase in each successive length in food chain.
organism that nourishes oxidation of inorganic chemical compounds, instead of photosynthesis
stable, mature community that reaches equilibrium after having evolved through stages and adapted to its environment
nitrogen cycle step 4) specialized bacteria convert ammonia to NO3, NO2, AND N2 and releases back to atmosphere
transition in species composition of a biological community, usually by a disturbance in community.
there is a greater species diversity and biological density than in the center of the ecological community
10% of energy is transferred from 1 level to the next, 90% given off as heat, respiration, digestion, etc.
Gross Primary Productivity
amount of sugar that plants produce in photosynthesis ------ amount of energy that plant needs for growth, repair, etc.
a species whose presence contributes to ecosystem's diversity and whose extinction would destroy other life forms
pioneer organisms, settle uninhabitable area and decomposes rocks to turn to soil, later lose to immigrants
(nitrogen cycle step 1) conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into compounds (ammonium)
close, prolonged associations between 2 or more different organisms of different species that may, but not necessarily, benefit
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