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51 terms

ap env. inhabitants of Earth and their relationships

AP environmental science
production of ammonia or ammonium compounds in the decomposition of organic matter by bacteria
(nitrogen cycle step 3) plant absorbs ammonium (NH3) and nitrate ions (NO3) through roots
accumulation of a substance in various tissues of a living organism
process where concentration of toxic substances increase in each successive length in food chain.
organism that nourishes oxidation of inorganic chemical compounds, instead of photosynthesis
climax community
stable, mature community that reaches equilibrium after having evolved through stages and adapted to its environment
formed from populations of different species occupying the same geographic area
nitrogen cycle step 4) specialized bacteria convert ammonia to NO3, NO2, AND N2 and releases back to atmosphere
organism that gets energy by consuming nonliving matter
ecological succession
transition in species composition of a biological community, usually by a disturbance in community.
edge effect
there is a greater species diversity and biological density than in the center of the ecological community
energy pyramid
10% of energy is transferred from 1 level to the next, 90% given off as heat, respiration, digestion, etc.
food web
complex interrelated food chains
gause's principle
no 2 species can occupy same niche at same time
Gross Primary Productivity
amount of sugar that plants produce in photosynthesis ------ amount of energy that plant needs for growth, repair, etc.
habitat fragmentation
size of an organism's natural habitat is reduced or human civilization occurs
dependent on other complex organisms for food
indigenous species
species that originates from the area it lives in
keystone species
a species whose presence contributes to ecosystem's diversity and whose extinction would destroy other life forms
invasive species
an introduced, nonnative species
Law of Conservation of Matter
matter cannot be created nor destroyed
relationship where both species benefit
natural selection
survival of the fittest
Net Primary Productivity
amount of energy that plants pass on to the community
total sum of species' use of resources in environment
(nitrogen cycle step 2) bacteria in soil convert ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate or NO3.
nitrogen fixation
(nitrogen cycle step 1) conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into compounds (ammonium)
relationship where 1 is helped, and 1 is harmed
carbs are synthesized from CO2 and H2O using light as energy source
pioneer species
organisms in first stage of succession
group of organisms of same species and same area
1 species feeds off another
primary consumers
organisms that consume producers (plants and algae)
primary succession
ecological succession begins in a near lifeless area
organism that can convert radiant energy or chemical energy to carbs
realized niche
when a species settles for a smaller niche after battling against another species
where large quantity of resources sits for long time
where animals and plants breathe and give off CO2 from cellular metabolism
residency time
the amount of time a resource spends in a reservoir or an exchange pool
secondary consumers
organisms that consume primary consumers
organisms that are capable of interbreeding with 1 another but unable to with other species
symbiotic relationships
close, prolonged associations between 2 or more different organisms of different species that may, but not necessarily, benefit
tertiary consumers
organisms that consume secondary consumers or other tertiary consumers
releasing water vapor through stomata of plants or pores
trophic level
feeding levels on food chain
where 2 ecosystems meet
smaller regions in ecosystems that share similar physical features
# and variety of organisms in an area (ecosystem) more of it leads to better adaptability and chances of survival
fundamental niche
no competition
pioneer organisms, settle uninhabitable area and decomposes rocks to turn to soil, later lose to immigrants