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42 terms

ap env. population ecology

AP environmental science
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age-structure pyramids
graphical representations of populations' ages (p90)
albedo
fraction of solar energy reflected back into space
biotic potential
amount the population would grow if unlimited resources in environment
birth rate
live births per 1,000 members of the population each year
carrying capacity
max population size that can be supported by available resources region
demographic transition model
model used to predict population trends based on births, deaths, and economy
ecological footprint
amount of Earth's surface that's necessary to supply and dispose waste from a population. I=PxAxT (pop.)(affluence)(technology)
emigration
movement of individuals out of a population
genetic drift
random fluctuations in frequency of seeing a gene in a small, isolated population. Due to chance, not natural selection
immigration
movement of individuals to a population
k-selected
organisms that reproduce later in life, fewer offspring, and heavily nurture offspring
logistic population growth
populations are well below size dictated by carrying capacity, and then they grow exponentially
population density
number of individuals of a population that inhabit a certain unit of land or water
replacement birth rate
# of children couple must have to replace themselves in population
r-selected
organisms reproduce early in life and have high capacity for reproductive growth
total fertility rate
# of children an average woman will bear during lifetime; based on analyzing data from past
Law of the Minimum
living organisms will continue to live, and consume available materials until the supply of materials is exhausted.
Law of Tolerance
How far an organism can tolerate changes in environment
decomposers
absorbs nutrients from nonliving organic matter (including waste!) and converts it into inorganic forms. ex: bacteria and fungi
phosphorous cycle
the cyclic movement of phosphorus in different chemical forms from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment
silviculture
managing forests for harvesting timber
slash and burn
vegetation is slashed and area is burned before being planted with crops
surface fires
fires that only burn forest's underbrush and don't damage mature trees; they help because they prevent bigger fires by removing underbrush that would otherwise burn quicker at high temps.
tailings
gangue (waste from mining)
traditional subsistence agriculture
each family in a community plats crops for themselves and harvest with labor by themselves or with animals
terracing
flat platforms on the hillside that creates level ground and reduces soil runoff from the slopes
tree farms
plantations that manage trees of the same age and harvested
uneven-aged management
ex: selective cutting, shelter-wood cutting, selective deforestation
rule-of-70
can predict long-term population growth (70/current growth=population will double in x years)
significant factors of human population growth
availability of clean water, improved sanitation systems, and medical care
Second Harvest
charitable agency that distributes food that would otherwise go to waste
urban sprawl
leave city and into suburbs
biodiversity hot spot
DIVERSE region that faces severe threats and has lost 70%+ of original vegetation
Marine Mammal Protection Act
protected marine mammals from falling below optimum sustainable population levels
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)
bans capture, exportation, or sale of endangered and threatened species
Endangered Species Act Program (1973)
prohibit trading and commerce of species endangered or threatened
background extinction rate
natural rate of extinction
boom-and-bust population
regular population changes
irruptive population
very large, then very small
irregular population
chaotic
logistic population
pop. doubles in short time
stable population
varies slightly above and below its carrying capacity over time