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44 terms

Chapter 2 Biology Test

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Atom
Basic unit of matter
Nucleus
Protons and neutrons binded together by strong forces
Electron
negative charged particle
Chemical Element
A pure substance that consists entirely of one atom
Isotopes
Atoms of the same element, that differ in the # of nuetrons
Chemical Compounds
Substance formed by the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in definite proportions.
Ionic bond
When electrons are transferred
Covalent Bond
When electrons are shared
ions
Positive and negative charged atoms
molecule
Smallest unit of most compounds
van der waals forces
When molecules are close together and attract
Cohesion
An attraction of molecules of the same substance
Adhesion
An attraction of molecules of different substances
Mixture
Physically mixed together, but not chemically
Solution
mixture of substances where compounds are evenly distributed
Solute
Substance Dissolved
Solvent
Where the solute dissolves in
Suspensions
Mixture of water and non dissolved material
Ph Scale
Indicates the concentration of H+ ions
Acid
Forms H+ ions
Base
Produces hydroxide ions
Buffers
weak acids/bases reacts with strong acids/bases
Monomers
small units that join together to form polymers
Polymers
Formed by many monomers
Carbohydrates are made of
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Carbohydrates
Main source of energy and structural purposes
Monosaccharides
Single sugar molecules
Polysaccharides
Large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides
Lipids are made of
carbon and hydrogen
Lipids
Store energy, biological membrane, and waterproof covering
Nucleic acids contain
Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
Nucleic acids
Are nucleotides and store and transmit hereditary, or genetic information.
Proteins contain
Nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Proteins
Form bones and muscles, help fight diseases, and regulate cell processes.
Amino Acids
Amino group on one end and carboxyl group on the other.
Chemical Reaction
Changes/transforms one set of chemicals into another
Reactants
Elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
Products
Elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction
Activation energy
Energy needed to get a reaction started
catalyst
speeds up a chemical reaction
Enzyme
speeds up chemical reaction in a cell.
Substrates
Reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions
Why is a water molecule polar?
It has an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
What is a radioactive isotope?
Their nuclei are unstable and break down.