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46 terms

ap env. resource utilization

AP environmental science
STUDY
PLAY
agroforestry
when trees and crops are planted together and create a mutualistic relationship
aquaculture
raising fish and other aquatic species in captivity for harvest
bottom trawling
a fishing technique where the ocean floor is filled with heavy nets that smash everything
by-catch
unwanted species that were caught
capture fisheries
fish farming where fish are caught in wild
clear-cutting
removal of all trees in an area
conservation
regulating a resource so it doesn't get depleted
consumption
everyday use of env. resources (clothes, food, housing)
contour plowing
rows of crops on hillsides, prevents erosion
deforestation
removal of trees for farming
driftnets
nets dragged through water and catch everything in path
ecosystem capital
value of natural resources
fishery
industry or occupation devoted to catching, processing, selling animals
greenbelt
open or forested area built at the outer edge of a city
ground fires
smoldering fires that take place in bogs or swamps and can burn underground for days/weeks, tough to detect and extinguish
intercropping
(strip cropping) practice of planting bands of different crops across a hillside
long lining
fishing
malnutrition
poor nutrition because of bad diet
mineral deposit
where a particular mineral is concentrated
mining
excavating earth for ore or minerals
no-till methods
farmers planting seeds w/o using a plow to turn soil
old growth forest
forest never been cut
overgrazed
grass consumed faster than it can regrow
preservation
maintenance
production
use environmental resource to profit
second growth forest
where cutting has occurred and a younger forest has arisen
selective cutting
removing select trees in an area
traditional subsistence agriculture
food for 1 family
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
requires the EPA to approve of all pesticides in U.S.
plantation farming
monoculture cash crop for export (bananas, coffee)
national park system
1916, manage and preserve forests and grasslands
Wilderness Act
road-free areas of 5,000 acres or more and islands within National Park System and National Wildlife Refuges. Restricted activity in these areas
Wild and Scenic Rivers Act
protect rivers with scenic,recreational,fish and wildlife, and other values
surface fires
fires usually burn only underbrush and do little damage to mature trees. Help prevent larger fires
crown fires
fires that start on the ground OR in canopies of forests that haven't had any recent fires. These spread quickly and consume underbrush and dead material. They are threatening
Anadromous Fish Conservation Act
Protect fish that live in see but grow up and breed in freshwater
Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act
Governed conservation & management of ocean fishing
Marine Mammal Protection Act
Estb. federal responsibility to conserve marine mammals
Endangered Species Act
broad protection for species listed as threatened or endangered in U.S. OR elsewhere
UN Agreement "Law of the Sea"
Set principles for conservation and management of certain types of fish
gangue
mining waste material
Mining Act
Governed prospecting and mining of minerals on publicly owned land
Mineral Leasing Act
Permitted Bureau of Land Management to grant leases for minerals (coal, sulfur, etc.) on public domain lands
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (superfund)
regulates damage done by mining
Resource Conservation and Recovery Acts
Regulate mineral processing wastes
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
Estb. mandatory standards for surface coal mining to help fish, wildlife, etc.