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AP environmental science


when trees and crops are planted together and create a mutualistic relationship


raising fish and other aquatic species in captivity for harvest

bottom trawling

a fishing technique where the ocean floor is filled with heavy nets that smash everything


unwanted species that were caught

capture fisheries

fish farming where fish are caught in wild


removal of all trees in an area


regulating a resource so it doesn't get depleted


everyday use of env. resources (clothes, food, housing)

contour plowing

rows of crops on hillsides, prevents erosion


removal of trees for farming


nets dragged through water and catch everything in path

ecosystem capital

value of natural resources


industry or occupation devoted to catching, processing, selling animals


open or forested area built at the outer edge of a city

ground fires

smoldering fires that take place in bogs or swamps and can burn underground for days/weeks, tough to detect and extinguish


(strip cropping) practice of planting bands of different crops across a hillside

long lining



poor nutrition because of bad diet

mineral deposit

where a particular mineral is concentrated


excavating earth for ore or minerals

no-till methods

farmers planting seeds w/o using a plow to turn soil

old growth forest

forest never been cut


grass consumed faster than it can regrow




use environmental resource to profit

second growth forest

where cutting has occurred and a younger forest has arisen

selective cutting

removing select trees in an area

traditional subsistence agriculture

food for 1 family

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)

requires the EPA to approve of all pesticides in U.S.

plantation farming

monoculture cash crop for export (bananas, coffee)

national park system

1916, manage and preserve forests and grasslands

Wilderness Act

road-free areas of 5,000 acres or more and islands within National Park System and National Wildlife Refuges. Restricted activity in these areas

Wild and Scenic Rivers Act

protect rivers with scenic,recreational,fish and wildlife, and other values

surface fires

fires usually burn only underbrush and do little damage to mature trees. Help prevent larger fires

crown fires

fires that start on the ground OR in canopies of forests that haven't had any recent fires. These spread quickly and consume underbrush and dead material. They are threatening

Anadromous Fish Conservation Act

Protect fish that live in see but grow up and breed in freshwater

Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act

Governed conservation & management of ocean fishing

Marine Mammal Protection Act

Estb. federal responsibility to conserve marine mammals

Endangered Species Act

broad protection for species listed as threatened or endangered in U.S. OR elsewhere

UN Agreement "Law of the Sea"

Set principles for conservation and management of certain types of fish


mining waste material

Mining Act

Governed prospecting and mining of minerals on publicly owned land

Mineral Leasing Act

Permitted Bureau of Land Management to grant leases for minerals (coal, sulfur, etc.) on public domain lands

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (superfund)

regulates damage done by mining

Resource Conservation and Recovery Acts

Regulate mineral processing wastes

Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act

Estb. mandatory standards for surface coal mining to help fish, wildlife, etc.

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