174 terms

Psychology 101

Psychology would be best described as:
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Which of the following behaviors can best describe as overt behavior
Watching a TV game show
In describing pseudopsychologies, it can be sai that they?
give the appearance of science but are actually false
Jay pays $5.00 to have a personality profile made through an analysis of his handwriting. Jay has just wasted his money on the pseudo-psychology known as:
If yu are having a hard time toilet training your young, healthypuppy,you would be most likely to obtain helpful information from a(n)
learning theorist
If a behavioral problem has a clearly identifiable organic cause,this problem should be treated by a:
A statistical technique called_________can be used to combine the results of many studies,as if they were all part of one large study
One who praises a dog for its loyalty and devotion to its master is committing a(n)
anthropomorphic error
An observation that the higher air temperature, the lower the activity of test animals would be an example of a
negative correlation
The study of unusual events is to________as information froma large number of people is to______.
clinical method;survey method
students who completed a study skill course raised their grade point averages before and after taking the course caused their improvement?
No, because there was no control group
Research on bystander apathy reveals that people often fail to help when other possible helpers are nearby due to a "diffusion of responsibility." Explaining the cause of this perplexing problem meets which goal pf psychology ?
Merdian Community College has a total of 4,00 students. One hundred of these students are surveyed about the programs offered at the college.These 100 students surveyed would constitute the:
information gained through direct observation is called empirical evidence
When a personnel director uses test and interviews to select the best candiate for the job,this selection process is illustrating the psychological goal of prediction
critical thinking is the ability to evaluate, compare,analyze critique, synthesize and reflect on information
Astrology has repeatedly been shown to have no scientific validity
In the method section of a research report,a psychologist provides background information on his or her study by reviewing pior studies on the same or related topics to the current one being investigated.
The whole is greater than the sum of its parts " was the motto of the behaviorists
Christina Ladd-Franklin was the first female president of the APA in 1905
A comparative psychologist would study how the human species progressed from eating with their fingers to using utensils
In an experiment to find out if taking Vitamin C decreases the number of colds one has during the winter,the number of colds would br the independent variable
Naturalistic observation,correlational studies, the clinical method, and the survey method are all considered non-experimental methods
A correlation coefficient of -87 indicates a very weak relationship btw the two events.
By selecting a sample and polling them, we can draw conclusions about the larger group called the population
The branching fibes of the ______and ______link with parts of other neurons
axon;axon terminal
During an action potential, the axons ion channels pop open to allow _____ions to rush into the axon.
Communication between neurons is considered to be a (n) _________change involving
chemical; neurotransmitters
The behavior sequence resulting from the actions of a sensory neuron, a connector neuron, and an effector cell is a(n)
reflex arc.
our instructor announces a "pop" test. You have not read the chapter yet. Your heart and breathing rate increases, and your mouth becomes dry. Which nervous system was responsible for this reaction?
Dave has just had some medical test conducted. One of the test recorded Daves brain waves on a moving sheet of paper. Dave was probably given the:
Martina has what appears to be a seizure, and her doctor believes that she may have epilepsy. So her doctor affixes electrodes to Martinas scalp in order to obtain a recoding of her brain waves. Martinas doctor is using a(n)__________to identify the brain wave patterns of epilepsy
Broca's area is located in the________, while Wernicke's area is located in the_______.
left frontal lobe; left temporal lobe
You begin to doze off in class but suddenly come to awareness when your name is called. The brain part responsible for your sudden arousal is the:
reticular activating system (RSA)
Which system within the forbrain has a major role in producing emotions and motivating behaviors, including rage, fear, sexual response, and laughter?
limbic system
The pineal gland releases a hormone called_______which helps control__________.
melatonin; body rhythms and sleep cycles
If you gesture more with your left hand, you probably process language:
in your right hemisphere
__________is the process by which nerve impulses conducted down the axons of neurons coated with myelin jump from gap to gap in the myelin layer.
Salatory conduction
If damage to a particular part of the brain consistently leads to a particular loss of function,then we say that the function may be_________in that structure.
The wrinkled surface of the cerebral cortex can be divided into two_________ and smaller areas known as_____________.
hemispheres; lobes
After having a stroke,Rich can speak and understand what has been said to him,but he now has great difficulty understanding the contex in which something is said. Rich also misunderstands sarcasm and joke. Rich has most likely suffered a stroke to:
the right hemisphere
The part of the neuron that specializes in receiving messages from other neurons is the axon
The whitish, fatty substance that surrounds the axon and aids conduction of a nerve impulse down the axon is called neurilemma
A barefoot child steps on a bee, then jerks his or her foot back in response to the sting. This response has likely involved all parts of the nervous system without any immediate help from the brain
Afunctional MRI gives both a three-dimensional structural view of the brain as well as making brain activity visible
Superior human intelligence is related to the fact that humans have brains with larger cerebellums
Concerning information processing, the left hemisphere utilizes simultaneous processing and tends to focus on the overall pattern.
Visual images are accurately represented in miniature in the occipital lobes much like a "little TV Screen" in the brain
Musicians, who practice special motor skills throughout their lives,have a larger than average cerebellums
As you are walking down a dark street, you hear a noise directly behind you, and you immediately dart off the sidewalk because of the activation of your amygdala.
Clear hand preferences have been shown in fetal ultrasound images.
The existence of easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up children is considered evidence for:
The existence of easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up children is considered evidence for:
hereditary differences in temperament.
Bruce has a dominant gene for brown eyes and a recessive gene for blue eyes. Bruce's eye color would be:
A time of increased susceptibility to both positive and negative environmental influences is called a:
sensitive period.
Studies of visual perception indicate that:
infants prefer faces to colored ovals.
Lee Ann is visibly upset when her mother leaves the room. When her mother returns after a few minutes absence, Lee Ann rushes to greet her mother and hugs her mother's legs. According to Mary Ainsworth's research, Lee Ann is exhibiting which type of attachment?
securely attached
Irene is withdrawn, emotionally stiff, and lacking in curiosity. She most likely has ________ parents.
At 18 months, Katy says "pah-getty" (spaghetti) whenever she wants to eat and says "milk" when she wants something to drink. She also calls her mother "Mama" and her father "Dada" and her cat "Kitty." Katy is most likely in the ________ stage of language development.
A child has learned to get his or her way with a younger sibling by using physical intimidation. If he or she uses the same tactics on peers, this demonstrates:
According to Erikson, if a child's efforts in learning various skills are regarded as messy, childish, or inadequate, feelings of ________ may result.
inferiority rather than industry
Vocabulary and stored knowledge are examples of ________ abilities, while skills requiring speed and rapid learning are examples of ________ abilities.
crystalized; fluid
According to Izard, the most common infant expression is ________ rather than ________.
interest; general excitement
You are watching television, when your four-year-old son comes into the room and sits on the floor between you and the television, blocking your view. You ask him to move so you can see better, and he moves so that HE can see better. Your son is exhibiting:
egocentric thought.
Four-year-old Annie is trying to put together her first jigsaw puzzle and has a great deal of difficulty until her father gives her some hints, such as "try putting the corners together first" and "that area looks like it needs pink ones, so lets find all the pink pieces." Annie's father is using the process Vygotsky called:
Jorge does not cheat on tests or copy other students' work because he does not want to be suspended from school and receive a zero on his test or other schoolwork. If Jorge uses this type of moral reasoning in most situations, one could say that Jorge is at the ________ of moral development.
preconventional level
Julie's friend Lynda is undergoing chemotherapy. While Julie is visiting Lynda at the hospital, Lynda screams at Julie that she is "ignorant and uncaring." According to Kübler-Ross, Lynda's behavior toward Julie is part of which emotional reaction to death and dying?
Bottom-up processing is like putting together a picture puzzle you've seen many times.
The idea that many people seem unable to detect gradual but deadly trends in modern civilization is an example of the Hawthorne Effect.
The Necker's cube and the Rorschach inkblots are good examples of ambiguous stimuli.
The apparent (or relative) brightness of two objects will remain the same as long as both objects are illuminated by the same amount of light.
Convergence and retinal disparity are similar in that both are monocular cues.
Motion parallax accounts for much of the apparent depth in movies and animated cartoons.
A linebacker in football may be able to tell if the next play will be a run or a pass by watching one or two key players, rather than the entire opposing team. This illustrates perceptual learning.
Individuals who have Charles Bonnet syndrome are mentally disturbed and lack the ability to engage in reality testing.
The purported ability to perceive events or gain information in ways that appear unaffected by distance or normal physical barriers is called clairvoyance.
The more confident the eyewitness, the more accurate the eyewitness will be.
The limit that one's environment places on the effects of heredity is referred to as the reaction range.
Ben touches his newborn brother's palm, and his little brother takes hold of Ben's finger and will not let go, illustrating the Babinski reflex.
According to research in social development, most infants have to be at least 18 months of age before they are able to recognize their images being shown on a television.
According to research by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, children in high-quality day care tend to have better relationships with their mothers and fewer behavior problems.
The attachment study of infant monkeys to wire and cloth surrogates suggested that the source of food is the most important factor in attachment.
In the concrete operational stage, children are able to use abstract principles and consider hypothetical possibilities.
Adolescence is the same as the developmental period known as puberty.
It is more common to "survive a crisis" at midlife than it is to make a "midcourse correction."
If Andy refuses to do his own laundry, he will have nothing to wear, which illustrates a natural consequence.
The analysis of information starting with pre-existing knowledge in order to organize features into a meaningful whole is known as:
top-down processing.
As you focus on your cell phone conversation while driving, you miss the road sign where you needed to make a turn and drive 20 miles out of the way. This is an example of:
inattentional blindness.
Carmen begins listening to the CD that she bought last week and that she has listened to at least twice a day since she bought it. After a few minutes, she realizes that she has not really been attending to the music at all. This is known as:
A previously blind person has just had her sight restored. Which of the following perceptual experiences is she most likely to have?
Which of the following illustrates the principle of contiguity?
A person lip-syncing to a record.
The chief cues for depth perception utilized by producers of 3-D movies are those that involve ________, in which the moviegoers are presented with two slightly different views of scenes.
retinal disparity
When Abby wants to draw a highway so that it appears to be going into the horizon, she makes the parallel lines of the highway converge as it nears the horizon. This illustrates the use of the pictorial depth cue known as:
linear perspective.
The moon illusion
is based on the additional depth cues that exist when the moon is near the horizon.
The illusion created by the Ames room works on which perceptual principle?
shape constancy
Concerning eyewitness testimony, which of the following statements is FALSE?
A victim of a crime is a more accurate witness than a person who was just an observer.
In order to become a better eyewitness to life, you should:
try to consciously pay closer attention.
In driving, greater skill frees mental capacity for other things, such as tuning the car's radio, changing CDs, or carrying on conversations. This illustrates:
divided attention.
A novice chef discovers how to tell the difference between dried basil, oregano, and tarragon by focusing on a specific aspect of each herb. This illustrates
perceptual learning.
European Americans tend to ________, while East Asians tend to ________.
explain actions in terms of internal factors; explain actions in terms of their social context
When a person is in a state of clear, organized alertness and perceives times, places, and events as real, meaningful, and familiar, he or she is said to be:
in waking consciousness.
Regarding sleep, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Some people can learn very complex tasks while asleep, such as learning a foreign language
You are struggling to stay awake while driving and realize that you may have "dozed off" for a few seconds. This shift in your brain activity is called:
a microsleep.
Casey finds Dr. Madison's geology lecture to be boring and uninteresting. Gradually, his muscles relax and drowsiness occurs. This drowsy but wakeful state is associated with ________ brain waves.
Regarding REM sleep, which of the following statements is FALSE?
After studying for a long period, you will remember more if you pull an all-nighter studying than if you go to sleep.
Which of the following would be good advice for treating insomnia?
Write down your worries early in the evening and plan how you will solve them tomorrow.
Differences between nightmares and night terrors include:
that nightmares occur during REM sleep; night terrors occur during NREM sleep.
Freud's psychodynamic dream theory was based on the assumption that:
the content of dreams has symbolic meaning.
Regarding how a person would act under hypnosis, which of the following statements is TRUE?
Most people will not act out hypnotic suggestions that they consider immoral or repulsive.
While meditating, Bernard tries to achieve a total non-judgmental awareness of the world. Bernard is using ________ meditation.
Psychologists have explored the possible benefits of ________ by using small isolation tanks in which a participant floats in shallow body-temperature water containing hundreds of pounds of Epsom salts.
sensory restriction
Addictive drugs stimulate a brain region called the nucleus accumbens to release the neurotransmitter ________, which results in intensified feelings of pleasure.
The most legitimate medical uses of amphetamines include which of the following?
To treat childhood hyperactivity and overdoses of depressant drugs.
Regarding marijuana and THC, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Marijuana smoke contains less cancer-causing hydrocarbons and less tar than tobacco smoke.
________ thought of dreams as plays and the dreamer as the playwright, while ________ referred to dreams as "feeling statements."
Hall; Cartwright
One thing that cocaine, "highway hypnosis," high fever, and meditation all have in common is that they produce ASCs.
As a sleep researcher is monitoring you, he notices that your brain waves are showing almost all delta waves. He awakens you at this point, and you awaken in a complete state of confusion. You are most likely in REM sleep.
Dreamless slow-wave NREM sleep increases after physical exertion, while REM sleep increases with daytime emotional stresses.
Aaron is trying to go to sleep. So, he tries to keep his eyes open (in the dark) and stay awake as long as possible. This allows sleep to overtake him unexpectedly and lowers performance anxiety. This technique is known as the paradoxical intention.
People with narcolepsy tend to fall directly into Stage 4 NREM sleep.
Interest in hypnosis began in the 1700s with Franz Mesmer, who believed that he could cure diseases with magnets; he called his theory "animal magnetism."
Concentrative meditation is more difficult to attain than mindfulness meditation.
From 1886 until 1906, Coca-Cola contained small amounts of cocaine, which were later replaced with caffeine.
Alcohol is classified as a stimulant, while nicotine is classified as a depressant.
According to Freud, when several people, objects, or events are combined into a single dream image, the dream process of secondary elaboration has taken place.
The formation of simple connections among various stimuli and responses is referred to as ________ learning.
With classical conditioning, the ________ are the most important aspects, while with operant conditioning, the ________ are the key.
antecedents; consequences
Mike and Jeff are brothers who have just moved with their parents into a beautiful old house. Mike soon discovers that if he flushes the toilet while Jeff is taking a shower, it will cause the water in the shower to become scalding hot. Naturally, Jeff screams as his reflexes cause him to leap backward in pain. After Mike has repeated this procedure several times, Jeff has begun to twitch involuntarily every time he hears any toilet flush. In this example, jumping backward to the pain of the hot water would be a(n):
unconditioned response (UR).
In a television commercial, an advertiser shows a party scene with many college-age students having a great time. The advertiser's product, a new lite-beer, is prominently displayed in the scene. This advertiser is hoping that his product will become associated with fun. Therefore, when a college student is in a store, he or she will associate this new beer will good feelings and fun. The advertiser is depending on ________ in selling his product.
higher order conditioning
After Pavlov had conditioned his dogs to salivate to the bell, he repeatedly presented the bell without presenting the food. As a result, ________ occurred.
A child learns to be afraid of spiders by observing his parents' highly emotional and negative response to them. This demonstrates:
vicarious classical conditioning.
Even though it will be four years before you graduate, you study and work hard at each course along the way because you know that having the degree will help you obtain a good job. Looking toward this degree helps maintain your hard work even though the reinforcement is delayed for several years. This illustrates:
response chaining.
Negative attention-seeking will develop in some children because:
the children receive attention when they are ill-behaved but are ignored when they are well-behaved.
If you study to achieve an A, you are studying because of ________, while studying to relieve your fear of making an F involves ________.
positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement
Every time you open the refrigerator, walk to a drinking fountain, turn up the heat, or order a double fudge sundae, your actions reflect ________ reinforcers.
Getting paid every two weeks at your job comes closest to which schedule of reinforcement?
fixed interval
Regarding spanking, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Frequent spankings tend to decrease aggression and reduce problem behaviors.
Elizabeth no longer has a difficult time finding her way around the new mall because after several visits she has developed a(n) ________ of the mall.
cognitive map
Studies of modeled aggression suggest that:
adults modeling aggression encourage aggression in children.
If you watch television every night and want to study more, make it a rule not to turn on the set until you have studied for an hour. Then, lengthen the requirement each week. Using the television watching as a reinforcement for studying is an example of:
the Premack principle.
Learning is a change in behavior caused by maturation and practice.
In Pavlov's experiments, the meat powder (food) placed on the dog's tongue was the conditioned stimulus.
Three-year-old Jake ran up to the neighbor's new lab puppy. The puppy barked loudly and playfully jumped up on Jake, knocking him down. Although he was not hurt, the experience did frighten Jake. The next time he saw another lab puppy in the park, he hugged his mother's knees and began to cry. The puppy would be the conditioned stimulus in this example.
In Thorndike's law of effect, events critical for conditioning occur before the response.
Superstitious behaviors are observed in people, not in other animals.
Negative reinforcement and punishment both decrease the behavior they follow.
We pick up phones that are ringing, but rarely answer phones that are silent, which illustrates the concept of stimulus control.
Tommy's mother slaps his hand as punishment when he tries to sneak his third before-dinner cookie. We can expect Tommy's cookie-sneaking to completely disappear.
If you have ever learned your way through some of the levels found in many video games, you have developed a cognitive map of the video game.
The Premack principle states that activities you like doing, such as watching television, can serve as reinforcers for activities that you want to increase, such as studying more.
A form of imagery in which images cross normal sense barriers (such as sounds being experienced as colors) is called eidetic imagery.
To be a "motorcycle," a vehicle must have two wheels, handlebars, and a motor, which illustrates that this definition for a motorcycle is a conjunctive concept.
Elena would be classified as a minority child, who is presently learning a second language. She will most likely experience additive bilingualism.
If you are asked to multiply a four-digit number and a three-digit number and you follow the steps you were taught in the fifth grade, then you are utilizing an algorithm.
If you have ever been without a screwdriver and took out a dime and used it to loosen the screw, then you did not let functional fixedness be a barrier to your problem-solving.
The majority of exceptionally creative people have very bizarre and eccentric lifestyles.
You will be meeting two new clients, one is a librarian and the other runs a successful business. The first person who comes into your office appears to be very shy and wears glasses, so you assume this must be the librarian, but it is not. Your faulty conclusion was based on the representativeness heuristic.
A deviation IQ represents a person's percentage of correct responses on an intelligence test.
In a study of intelligence, adopted and biological children reared by the same mother resembled her IQ to the same degree, whether or not they shared her genes.
Court decisions have led some states to outlaw the use of intelligence tests in public schools.
If you were asked to think of all the different ways to use an empty egg carton, everyday uses would be retrieved as ________ images, while more original uses would be generated through ________ images.
stored; created
An advertisement states that job applicants must have a B.S. degree in chemistry and three letters of recommendation. This illustrates a:
conjunctive concept.
When Paul's friend offered to set him up on a date with Edie, he agreed until he found out she was a psychologist. He told his friend "No way, I don't want to date a crazy person; all psychologists are crazy." Paul's statement about Edie best reflects:
a connotative meaning of "psychologist."
Two children are in a grocery store and hear an adult refer to the huge apples in the display as "eating apples." The older child understands that these "apples would be good for eating, rather than cooking," while the younger child is distancing herself from the display, hoping not to be the "apple's next meal." This situation illustrates a ________ difference in understanding the phrase "eating apples."
A student takes a multiple-choice test by reading the stem of each item, looking for key words, and generating a tentative response before looking at the responses. This helps the student narrow down the possible answers. This student is using:
a heuristic.
The textbook problem of how many socks to take out of a drawer to get a matched pair when the drawer contains a four to five mixture of white and black socks requires the reader to realize that the four to five mixture is irrelevant information and that only relevant information is that there are two colors of socks. Getting the correct answer of three socks requires the reader to first use which of Sternberg and Davidson's insight abilities?
selective attention
In tests of creativity, ________ is indicated by the total number of solutions, while ________ is indicated by the number of different types of solutions produced.
fluency; flexibility
Which stage of creative thought involves the "Aha!" experience and is often depicted in cartoons as a light bulb appearing over the thinker's head as the solution to the problem occurs?
You are on a jury. The defendant is a well-dressed petite young lady. She just does not fit your idea of a murderer. It will be important for you to listen to the evidence presented rather than succumb to:
the representativeness heuristic.
Alfred Binet is best known for:
developing the first useful individual test of intelligence.
Billy has a mental age of eight and a chronological age of ten. Billy's IQ is:
Early signs of giftedness include:
seeking out older children and adults.
A(n) ________ intellectual disability may result from damage due to teratogens, a lack of oxygen at birth, or defective genes.
Language, music, bodily-kinesthetic, and naturalist are four of the components of:
intelligence, according to Gardner.
Regarding culture, race, and IQ scores, which of the following statements is TRUE?
What psychologist Robert Sternberg calls practical intelligence may be seen by minority cultures as more important than analytic intelligence.