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707 terms

Medical Terminology Mid-Term

Chapters 1-10 from Medical Terminology: A word building approach by Rice
STUDY
PLAY
milliliter is:
one-thousandth of a liter
The root maxim means:
greatest
The branch of medicine concerned with the aging process is:
geriatrics
A ________ is an instrument used to view small objects.
microscope
The term febrile means:
pertaining to fever
The prefix in heterogeneous means:
different
The suffixes -al, -ary, -ic, and -ous all mean:
pertaining to
The suffix for bladder is?
-cyst
The suffix -algesia means:
condition of pain
The suffix -or means:
one who
When a suffix is added to a word, it:
changes the meaning of the word
If the combining form neur/o means nerve, then neurocyte is a nerve:
cell
The definition of -lysis is:
all of the above
The prefix oligo- means
scanty
Internally, computers use binary code to operate. Binary means:
two elements
The prefix ana- means:
up, apart, backward
The objective evidence of an illness is termed
sign
The prefix in unconscious means:
not
In the term premenstrual, the prefix pre- means:
before
The prefix mega- means ________ or great.
Large
n the following list, the root that means behind is:
poster
In the term topical, the suffix -al means:
pertaining to
The combining form for head is:
cephal/o
In the term ambilateral, the prefix ambi- means:
both
A state of equilibrium maintained by the body is termed:
homeostasis
The term used to describe being the farthest from the center is:
distal
In the anatomical position, the palms are:
to the front
Which term means toward the back?
posterior
The functions of ________ are protection, absorption, secretion, and excretion.
epithelial tissue
Which plane vertically divides the body into a right and left half?
midsagittal
The ________ plane vertically divides the body, as it passes through the midline, to form a right and left half.
midsagittal
In the term anatomy, the suffix -tomy means:
incision
A/An ________ is a grouping of similar cells that together perform specialized functions.
tissue
The suffix in the term inguinal means:
pertaining to
In the term cephalic, the root cephal means:
head
The ________ plane divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
transverse
A ________ is a hollow space containing body organs.
cavity
Which term means pertaining to body organs enclosed within a cavity, especially the abdominal organs?
visceral
Which term means pertaining to one side?
unilateral
In the term systemic, the root system means:
a composite whole
In the term jaundice, the root jaund means:
yellow
In the term anhidrosis, the root hidr means:
sweat
Overgrowth of scar tissue due to excessive collagen formation is called a/an:
keloid
The medical term for a bedsore is:
decubitus
Excessive flow of oil from the sebaceous glands is called:
seborrhea
White spots or patches formed on the mucous membrane of the tongue or cheek are called:
leukoplakia
Another term for a bruise is:
ecchymosis
The medical term subungual means pertaining to:
below the nail
The combining form in the term telangiectasia means:
vessel
The pigment that gives color to the skin is:
melanin
A fungal condition of the hair is known as:
trichomycosis
The medical term tinea is also known as:
ringworm
An abrasion of the skin by scratching, trauma, or chemicals is termed:
excoriation
The sweat glands secrete sweat for cooling by:
evaporation
A general term used to describe redness of the skin is:
erythema
A common skin condition characterized by frequent episodes or redness, itching and thick dry scales is:
psoriasis
A cancerous tumor that has black pigmentation is a:
melanocarcinoma
Leukoplakia is:
white spots formed on the tongue or cheek
A/An ________ is commonly called a blackhead.
Comedo
Bending a limb is called?
flexion
All of the following are functions of the skeletal system except:
acid-base balance
A condition that is characterized by the progressive loss of bone density and thinning of bone tissue is called:
osteoporosis
A lateral curvature of the spine is known as:
scoliosis
A ________ fracture usually occurs in children.
greenstick
The medical term for the heel bone is:
calcaneus
The medical term for the big toe is:
hallux
A rounded process that enters into the formation of a joint is:
condyle
A disease that involves inflammation of the joints is called:
arthritis
The process of moving a body part away from the middle is:
abduction
The term ankylosis means:
condition of stiffening of a joint
Which bone is not located in the upper extremity?
femur
The prefix dis- means:
apart
Swayback is another word for:
lordosis
Inflammation of the bone and joint is:
osteoarthritis
The membrane that forms the covering of bones except at their articular surfaces is called:
periosteum
In the term arthroscope, the suffix -scope means:
instrument
The combining form in calcaneal means:
heel bone
Synarthrosis is a type of joint that:
does not permit movement
The center for longitudinal bone growth in children is:
epiphyseal plate
All of the following are functions of the muscular system except:
hemopoiesis
A condition with widespread muscular pain and debilitating fatigue is known as:
fibromyalgia
A muscle having three heads with a single insertion is called:
triceps
To knead, apply pressure and friction to external body tissues is known as:
massage
In the term hydrotherapy, the suffix -therapy means:
treatment
Inflammation of muscle tissue is termed:
myositis
In the term intramuscular, the prefix intra- means:
within
A band of fibrous connective tissue attaching muscles to bones is a:
tendon
The medical term for pain in the arm is:
brachialgia
The surgical removal of a limb, part, or other appendage is:
amputation
Skeletal muscle is also known as ________ muscles.
Smooth and voluntary
The term ataxia means:
lack of muscular coordination
In the term diathermy, the root therm means:
hot, heat
In the term tenodynia, the suffix -dynia means:
pain
A term used to describe the muscles immediately surrounding the shoulder joint is
rotator cuff
A chronic disease characterized by muscular weakness is known as:
myasthenia gravis
The term dactylospasm is defined as:
cramp of a finger or toe
The suffix in myoplasty means:
surgical repair
The medical term for a lack of muscle tone is:
flaccid
Myokinesis is defined as:
muscular motion
Dermat/o
skin
Trich/o
hair
Onch/o
nail
Seb/o
oil
Hidr/o
sweat
Benign
harmless
Alopecia
loss of hair
Metastasis
a process of spreading cancer
Rhytidectomy
removal of facial wrinkles
Keltoid
overgrowth of scar tissue
Rules of 9
method of estimating the extent of burns
Melanoma
malignant black mole or tumor
Onychmycosis
condition of nail caused by fungus
Puritus
sever itching
Sebum
fatty secretion of the sebaceous gland
Seborrhea
excessive oil flow of the sebaceous gland
Trichomycosis
a fungal condition of the hair
Xeroderma
dry skin
Urticarial
hives
Verruca
wart
Nevus
mole
Cicatrix
scar
Ecchymosis
bruise
Cata-
down
Ambi-
both
Brady
slow
Ase
enzyme
-stasis
control
-lysis
breakdown
-pexy
surgical fixation
-cele
hernia
-emesis
vomiting
Bariatrics
prevention, control, and treatment of obesity
Nephrology
study of diseases of the kidney and urinary system
Othorhinolaryngology
study of diseases of the ear, nose, and throat
-megaly
enlargement
-plasis
formation
-opsy
to view
-tome
instrument to cut
-plasty
surgical repair
-pnea
breathing
-trophy
nourishment
-olig/o
scanty
-centesis
surgical puncture
-graphy
recording
ante-
before, forward
anti-
against
ecto-
out, outside, outer
endo-
within, inner
hyper-
above, excessive, beyond
hypo-
below, under, deficient
inter-
between
intra-
within
para-
beside, alongside, abnormal
peri-
around
per-
through
pre-
before, in front of
pro-
before
super-
above, beyond
supra-
above, beyond
-poiesis
formation
-ptosis
prolapse, drooping, sagging, falling down
-ptysis
spitting
-rrhagia
to burst forth, bursting forth
-rrhage
to burst forth, bursting forth
-rrhaphy
suture
-rrhea
flow, discharge
-rrhexis
rupture
-scope
instrument for examining
-scopy
visual examination, to view, examine
-tome
instrument to cut
-tomy
incision
-tripsy
crushing
-trophy
nourishment, development
a as in bursa
to ae as in bursae
ax as in thorax
to aces as in thoraces or es as in thoraxes
en as in foramen
to ina as in foramina
is as in crisis
to es as in crises
is as in iris
to ides as in irides
is as in femoris
to a as in femora
ix as in appendix
to ices as in appendices
nx as in phalanx
to ges as in phalanges
on as in spermatozoon
to a as in spermatozoa
um as in ovum
to a as in ova
us as in nucleus
to i as in nuculei
y as in artery
to i and add es as in arteries
Medical terminology is a specialized language, with its origin arising from what influence on medicine?
Greek
The medical term for pertaining to the armpit is:
axillary
-algesia
condition of pain
-ant
forming
-ase
enzyme
-ate
use, action
-blast
immature cell, germ cell
-cide
to kill
-crit
to separate
-cuspid
point
-cyst
bladder, sac
-cyte
cell
-dipsia
thirst
-drome
a course
-er
relating to, one who
-gen
formation, produce
-genesis
formation, produce
-ide
having a particular quality
-ive
nature of, quality of
-liter
liter
-logy
study of
-lymph
clear fluid, serum, pale fluid
-or
one who, a doer
-phil
attraction
-stasis
control, stop, stand still
-therapy
treatment
-thermy
heat
-um
tissue, structure
-uria
urination, condition of urine
-ac
pertaining to
-ad
pertaining to
-al
pertaining to
-ar
pertaining to
-ary
pertaining to
-ic
pertaining to
-ile
pertaining to
-ior
pertaining to
-ose
pertaining to
-ous
pertaining to
-tic
pertaining to
-us
pertaining to
-y
pertaining to
-esis
condition
-ia
condition
-ism
condition
-iatry
treatment
-ician
a physician who specializes in
-ist
a physician who specializes in
-osis
condition
-y
condition
-cle
small
-icle
little
-ole
small
-ula
small
-ule
small
-ate
use, action, having the form of, possessing
-blast
immature cell, germ cell, embryonic cell
-ectasis
dilatation, dilation, distention, stretching, expansion
-gen
formation, produce
-genesis
formation, produce
-genic
formation, produce
-gram
a weight, mark, record
-ive
nature of, quality of
-lymph
serum, clear fluid, pale fluid
-lysis
destruction, separation, breakdown, loosening, dissolution
-penia
lack of, deficiency, abnormal reduction
-plasm
a thing formed, plasma
-plegia
stroke, paralysis, palsy
-ptosis
prolapse, drooping, falling down, sagging
-rrhea
flow, discharge
-scopy
to view, examine, visual examination
-spasm
tension, spasm, contraction
-staxis
dripping, trickling
-trophy
nourishment, development
-y
process, condition, pertaining to
-algia
pain, ache
-asthenia
weakness
-betes
to go
-cele
hernia, tumor, swelling
-cusis
hearing
-derma
skin
-dynia
pain, ache
-ectasis
dilation, distention
-edema
swelling
-emesis
vomiting
-ion
process
-itis
inflammation
-kinesis
motion
-lepsy
seizure
-lexia
diction, word, phrase
-malacia
softening
-mania
madness
-megaly
enlargement, large
-mnesia
memory
-noia
mind
-oid
resemble
-oma
tumor
-opia
sight, vision
-oxia
oxygen
-pathy
disease, emotion
-penia
deficiency -pepsia to digest
-phagia
to eat, to swallow
-phasia
to speak, speech
-phobia
fear
-plasia
formation, produce
-plasm
a thing formed, plasma
-plegia
paralysis, stroke
-pnea
breathing
-ptosis
drooping, prolapse, sagging
-ptysis
spitting
-rrhage
bursting forth
-rrhea
flow, discharge
-rrhexis
rupture
-spasm
tension, spasm, contraction
-trophy
nourishment, development
-centesis
surgical puncture
-clasis
a breaking
-desis
binding
-ectomy
surgical excision, surgical removal, resection
-gram
a weight, mark, record
-graph
instrument for recording
-graphy
recording
-ize
to make, to treat or combine with
-lysis
destruction, separation, breakdown, loosening
-meter
instrument to measure, measure
-metry
measurement
-opsy
to view
a-, an-
no, without, lack of, apart
anti-, contra-
against
auto-
self
brachy-
short
brady-
slow
cac-, mal-
bad
dia-
through, between
dys-
bad, difficult, painful, abnormal
eu-
good, normal
ex-, exo-
out, away from
hetero-
different
homeo-
similar, same, likeness, constant
hydro-
water
micro-
small
oligo-
scanty, little
pan-
all
pseudo-
false
sym-, syn-
together, with
a-, an-
no, not, without, lack of, apart
ad-
toward, near, to
bi-
two, double
de-
down, away from
di-
two, double
dia-
through, between, complete
dif-, dis-
apart, free from, separate
dys-
bad, difficult, painful, abnormal
ec-, ecto-
out, outside, outer
end-, endo-
within, inner
ep-, epi-
upon, over, above
eu-
good, normal
ex-, exo-
out, away from
extra-
outside, beyond
hyper-
above, beyond, excessive
hypo-
below, under, deficient
in-
in, into, not
mega-
large, great
meta-
beyond, over, between, change
para-
beside, alongside, abnormal
poly-
many, much, excessive
post-
after, behind
pre-
before, in front of
pro-
before, in front of
super-
above, upper
supra-
above, beyond
epi-
upon, above, over
ex-
out, away from
extra-
outside, beyond
hyper-
above, beyond, excessive
hypo-
below, under, deficient
inter-
between
intra-
within, into
meso-
middle
para-
beside, alongside
retro-
backward
sub-
below, under, beneath
ambi-
both
bi-
two, double
bin-
twice, two
centi-
one hundredth
deca-
ten
di(s)-
two, apart
milli-
one-thousandth
mono-
one
multi-
many, much
nulli-
none
poly-
many
primi-
first
quadri-
four
semi-, hemi-
half
tri-
three
uni-
one
Stem Cells
They are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods. They are unspecialized. They give rise to specialized cell types.
Epithelial Tissue
this tissue forms the outer layer of skin, covers organs, lines cavities, and form tubes, ducts, and portions of certain glands; responsible for protection, absorption, secretion, and excretion
Connective Tissue
is most abundant of tissue and is responsible for supporting organs of the body, providing sheaths for muscles, and connects muscle to bone and bones to joints
Muscle Tissue consist of three different types of tissue:
Voluntary or Striated, Cardiac, Involuntary or smooth
Superior
above, in an upward direction, toward the head.
Anterior (ventral)
in front of or before, the front side of the body.
Posterior (dorsal)
toward the back, back side of the body.
Cephalic
pertaining to the head
Medial
nearest the midline or middle
Lateral
to the side, away from the middle
Proximal
nearest the point of attachment or near the beginning of a structure
Distal
away from the point of attachment or far from the beginning of a structure
Midsagittal plane
vertically divides the body as it passes through the midline to form a right and left half
Transverse or Horizontal Plane
any plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions
Coronal or frontal Plane
any plane that divides the body at right angles to the midsagittal plane into anterior and posterior portions
Ventral cavity
a hollow portion of the human torso extending from the neck to the pelvis that contains the organs of respiration digestion reproduction and elimination
Ventral cavity consists of 3 cavities
thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, pelvic cavity
Thoracic cavity
chest area containing the heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea, thymus, major blood and lymph vessels
Pleural cavity
space around the lungs
Pericardial cavity
chest area containing the hear
Abdominal cavity
space below the diaphragm, commonly referred to as the belly, that contains the kidneys, stomach, intestines, and other organs of digestion
Pelvic cavity
the space formed by the bones of the pelvis and contains the organs of elimination and reproduction
Dorsal cavity
contains the structures of the nervous system
Right and left hypochondriac
upper region at the level of the ninth rib cartilage
Epigastric
region over the stomach
Right and left lumbar
middle lateral region
Umbilical
in the center, between the right and left lumbar region, at the navel
Right and left Iliac (Inguinal)
lower lateral region
Hypogastric
lower middle region below the navel
Right upper quadant
contains the right lobe of the liver, gallbladder, pert of the pancreas, and part of the small and large intestines
Left upper quadrant
contains the left lobe of the liver, stomach spleen, part of the pancreas, and part of the small and large intestines
Right lower quadrant
contains part of the small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, and right ureter
Left lower quadrant
contains part of the small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, and left ureter
abdomen
abdomin/o
ankle (tarsus)
tars/o
arm
brach/i
back
poster
bones
oste/o
breast
mast; mamm/o
cheek
bucc/o
chest
thorac/o
ear
ot/o
elbow
cubital; olecran/o
eye
ophthalm/o; ocul/o; opt/o
finger
dactyl/o
foot
pod/o
gums
gingiv
hand
manus; chir/o
head
cephal/oheart cardi/o
hip
coxa
leg
crur
liver
hepat/o
lungs
pulm/o; pulmon/o; pneum/o; pneumon/o
mouth
or/o
muscle s
muscul/o
navel
umbilic; omphal/o
neck
cervic/o
nerves
neur/o
nose
nas/o; rhin/o
ribs
cost/o
side
later
skin
derm/a; dermat/o; derm/o; cutane/o
skull
crani/o
stomach
gastr/o
teeth
dent
temple
tempor
thigh bone
femor/o
throat (pharynx)
pharyng/o
thumb
pollex
tongue
lingu/o; gloss/o
wrist (carpus)
carp/o
Functions of the skin
protection, regulation, sensation, secretion
Sebaceous glands
secrete oil (sebum)
The Epidermis - is divided into four strata
corneum, lucidum, granulusum, germinativum
Stratum Corneum
the outermost, horny layer, consisting of dead cells filled with a protein substance called keratin. It forms the protective covering of the body that varies in thickness
Stratum Lucidum
a translucent layer lying directly beneath the stratum corneum. It is not seen in thin skin and is also composed of dead or dying cells.
Stratum Granulosum
consist of several layers of living cells that are in the process of becoming a part of the previously mentioned strata. The cells are active in the keratinization (they lose their nuclei and become hard or horny) process.
Stratum Germinativum
the innermost layer is composed of several layers of living cells capable of mitosis or cell division. It is also called the mucosum or malpighii and is responsible for regeneration of the epidermis. Damage to this layer of skin necessitates the use of skin grafts. Melanin (pigment that gives color to the skin) is formed here.
Dermis
also called the corium or true skin. The dermis is composed of connective tissue containing lymphatics, nerves and nerve endings, blood vessels, sebaceous and sweat glands, elastic fibers, and hair follicles. It is attached to underlying structures by subcutaneous tissue that supports, nourishes, insulates, and cushions the skin
Two layers of the dermis
Upper or Papillary and Lower or Reticular
Upper or Papillary Layer
arranged into parallel rows of microscopic structures called papillae (produces ridges that are one's fingerprints or footprints)
Lower or Reticular Layer
composed of white fibrous tissue that supports the blood vessels
Hair Papilla
a loop of capillaries enclosed within connective tissue.
Pilomotor Muscle
attached to each side of the follicle; when skin is cooled or the individual has an emotional reaction, the skin forms "gooseflesh" as a result of contraction by these muscles.
Lunula
crescent-shaped white area of the nail
Sebaceous (oil) Glands
the oil-secreting glands of the skin. The tiny ducts open into the hair follicle and their secretion lubricates the hair and the skin. Sebum secretion, which is controlled by the endocrine system, varies with age, puberty, pregnancy, and senility.
Sudoriferous (sweat) Glands
the approximately 2 million sweat glands are coiled and tubular in structure. They are distributed over the entire surface of the body with the exception of the margin of the lips, glans penis, and the inner surface of the prepuce. The sweat glands secrete sweat or perspiration, which: . Helps to cool the body by evaporation.. Rids the body of waste through the pores of the skin
Vernix caseosa
a cheeselike substance that covers the fetus until birth
Milia
white pin-head-size pimples of a newborn which appear on the face and sometimes the trunk.
Pruritis
itching
Emollients
substances that are oily in nature. These are used for dry skin caused by aging, excessive bathing, and psoriasis.
Keratolytics
agents that promote loosening of the horny layers of the skin. These agents are used for acne, warts, psoriasis, corns, calluses, and fungal infections.
Local Anesthetic Agents
agents that inhibit the conduction of nerve impulses from sensory nerves and thereby reduce pain and discomfort; can be used topically to reduce discomfort associated with insect bites, burns, and poison ivy.
D. Antihistamine Agents
agents that act to prevent the action of histamine; used to help relieve symptoms, such as itching, in allergic responses, and contact dermatitis.
Antipruritic Agents
agents that prevent or relieve itching.
Antibiotic Agents
agents that destroy or stop the growth of microorganisms. They are used to prevent infection associated with minor skin abrasions and to treat superficial skin infections and acne. Several antibiotic agents are combined in a single product to take advantage of the different antimicrobial spectrum of each drug.
Antifungal Agents
agents that destroy or inhibit the growth of fungi and yeast. These are used to treat fungus and/or yeast infections of the skin, nails, and scalp.
Antiviral Agents
agents that combat specific viral diseases.
Anti-inflammatory Agents
agents used to relieve the swelling, tenderness, redness, and pain of inflammation. They consist of:
Topical Corticosteroids
used to treat dermatitis and psoriasis.
Oral Corticosteroids
used to treat contact dermatitis, such as poison ivy, when symptoms are severe.
Antiseptic Agents
agents that prevent or inhibit the growth of pathogens. Generally applied to the surface of living tissue.
Two types of Tuberculosis skin tests
Tine and Heaf Test and Mantoux Test
Scratch (Epicutaneous) or Prick Test
test involves the placement of a suspected allergen in the uppermost layers of the epidermis, usually if the skin of the forearm or back. Redness or swelling at the scratch site within 10 minutes indicates allergy to the substance, rendering a positive test result. If no reaction occurs, the test result is negative.
Sweat Test (Chloride)
a test performed on sweat to determine the level of chloride concentration on the skin. In cystic fibrosis there is an increase in skin chloride.
Tzanck Test
a microscopic examination of a small piece of tissue that has been surgically scraped from a pustule to identify types of viral infections.
Eczema (Atopic or Contact Dermatitis)
a chronic skin disorder categorized by scaly and itching rashes. It is common in infants with at least half of those cases clear by age 3. In adults, the condition is chronic. Sufferers often have a family history of eczema or an allergic condition.
Psoriasis
common skin inflammation characterized by frequent episodes of redness, itching, and thick, dry, silvery scales on the skin. Most common in individuals between the ages of 15 and 35 and is thought to be an inherited, autoimmune disease. The disease presents with a buildup of dead skin and the formation of thick scales within a few days versus the normal one month period of time that it takes new skin cells to move up from lower layers to the surface. Treatment depends on the extent and severity of the disorder
anorexia
lack of appetite
bilirubin
orange-colored bile pigment produced by the separation of hemoglobin
IBS
disorder the interferes with the normal functions of the large intestine
cirrhosis
chronic degenerative liver disease
hepatoma
tumor of the liver
dyspahgia
difficulty in swallowing
dyspepsia
difficulty in digestion
enteritis
inflammation of the small intestine
cholecystitis
inflammation of the gallbladder
catabolism
breaking complex substances in to more basic elements
anabolism
building up the body substance in the constructive phase of metabolism
deglutition
act or process of swallowing
glossotomy
surgical incision in to the tongue
ascites
accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
enteric
pertaining to the small intestine
lavage
to wash out a cavity
emesis
vomiting
gastric
pertaining to the stomach
gastroenterology
study of the stomach and the intestines
postprandial
after a meal
pyloric
pertaining to the gatekeeper, opening between the stomach and the doudenum
stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth
volvulus
twisting of the bowel on itself that causes an obstruction
lypolysis
destruction of fat
functions of bones
1. provide shape, support, and framework of the body
2. provide protection for internal organs
3. formation of blood cells
4. provide attachment for skeletal muscles
5. make movement possible
hemopoiesis
formation of blood cells which takes place in the bone marrow
epiphysis
ends of a developing bone
diaphysis
shaft of a long bone
periosteum
membrane that covers bone except at their articular surfaces
compact bone
dense, hard layer of bone
medullary canal
narrow cavity throughout the length of the diaphysis
endosteum
membrane that lines the medullary canal and contains bone marrow
cancellous or spongy bone
reticular tissue that makes up most of the volume of bone
synarthrosis
bones are in close contact with each other therfore there is no movement. There is no joint cavity, for example, cranial suture
amphiarthrosis
permits very slight movement, for example, vertebra
diarthrosis
freely movable joint
abduction
moving of a body part away from the central axis of the body
adduction
moving of a body part toward the central axis of the body
circumduction
circular movement of joint, combining movements; possible in shoulder joint, hip joint, and trunk around a fixing point
dorisflexion
bending backward; toes pointed up
eversion
the position of being turned outward
flexion
act of bending a joint
inversion
turning inward
pronation
the act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot is turned downward or backward
protraction
moving a body part forward and parallel to the ground
retraction
moving a body part backward and parallel to the ground
rotation
Moving a part around an axis
supination
the act of rotating the arm or the leg so that the palm of the hand, or sole of the foot, is turned forward or upward
osteoblasts
bone forming cells
endochondral ossification
Process of transforming cartilage into bone.
epiphyseal plate
Site of longitudinal growth in a child
epiphyses
ends of long bone
disphysis
shaft or mid-portion of a long bone
osteoporosis
abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium
corticosteroids
Used medically as an anit-inflammatory agent
kyphosis
abnormal posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (humpback condition)
gout
disease in which an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood causes sodium urate crystals (trophi) to be deposited in the joints, producing arthritis
osteoarthritis
chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints
rheumatoid arthritis
a chronic autoimmune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities
carpal tunnel syndrome
Painful, inflammatory condition that affects the carpal or wrist portion of the median nerve. Often associated with repetitive actions such as typing. Can be caused by physical trauma or hereditary conditions that inflame tendons around the nerve, disrupting hand function and resulting in numbness and pain.
closed (simple) fracture
an uncomplicated fracture in which the broken bones to not pierce the skin
open (compound) fracture
bone fracture that breaks through the skin
comminuted fracture
fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed
transverse fracture
Complete fracture that is straight across the bone at right angles to the long axis of the bone.
greenstick fracture
bending and incomplete break of a bone; most often seen in children
spiral fracture
ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone, common sports fracture, spread along the length of the bone
colles' fracture
occurs at the lower end of the radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on his or her hands
Pott's Fracture
occurs at the ankle and affects both bones of the lower leg.
Compression Fracture
occurs in vertebrae subjected to extreme stresses.
Epiphyseal Fracture
a fracture seen exclusively in children occurring where the matrix is undergoing calcification and chondrocytes are dying.
fascia
Each muscle is made up of a group of fibers held together by connective tissue and enclosed in a fibrous sheath
Muscles that are controlled by the conscious part of the brain and attach to bone
skeletal muscles voluntary or striated
Muscles move through
contractility, extensibility, excitability, and elasticity.
Smooth Muscle
also known as involuntary, visceral, orunstriated. Smooth muscle is not controlled by the conscious part of the brain. These muscles are under the control of the autonomic nervous system and in most cases, produce relatively slow contractions with greater degree of extensibility. These muscles lack the cross-striped appearance of skeletal muscle. This type of muscles includes internal organs of the digestive, respiratory, and urinary tract plus certain muscles of the eye and skin
Cardiac Muscle
- the muscle of the heart or myocardium is involuntary but striated in appearance. It is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and specialized neuromuscular tissue located within the right atrium
Atrophy
occurs with disuse of muscles over a long period of time. It is caused by prolonged bed rest and immobility
fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS)
it is a widespread musculoskeletal pain and fatigue disorder
Myasthenia Gravis (MG)
a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal muscles of the body. The primary symptom of MG is muscle weakness that increases during periods of activity and improves after periods of rest
Muscular Dystrophy (MD)
a group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal or voluntary muscles that control movement
A condition with widespread muscular pain and debilitating fatigue is known as:
fibromyalgia
A muscle having three heads with a single insertion is called:
triceps
To knead, apply pressure and friction to external body tissues is known as:
massage
In the term hydrotherapy, the suffix therapy means:
-treatment
Inflammation of muscle tissue is termed:
myositis
In the term intramuscular, the prefix intra means:
- within
A band of fibrous connective tissue attaching muscles to bones is a:
tendon
The medical term for pain in the arm is:
brachialgia
The surgical removal of a limb, part, or other appendage is:
amputation
The term ataxia means:
lack of muscular coordination
In the term diathermy, the root therm means:
hot, heat
In the term tenodynia, the suffix dynia means
:- pain
A term used to describe the muscles immediately surrounding the shoulder joint is:
rotator cuff
A chronic disease characterized by muscular weakness is known as:
myasthenia gravis
The term dactylospasm is defined as:
cramp of a finger or toe
The suffix in myoplasty means:
surgical repair
The medical term for a lack of muscle tone is:
flaccid
Myokinesis is defined as:
muscular motion
alimentary canal
and/or gastrointestinal tract, this continuous tract begins with the mouth and ends with the anus
3 functions of the digestive system
digestion,absorption, and elimination
Gingivae
surround the necks of the teeth.
Hard and Soft Palates - provide a roof for the oral cavity.
...
Lingual Fernulum
a thin fold of mucous membrane that connects the free portion of the tongue to the underlying epithelium, which prevents extreme movement of the tongue
3 salivary glands
Parotid, Sublingual, and submandibular
deciduous teeth
baby teeth
permanent teeth
8 incisors (four front teeth)
4 canines (cuspids)
8 premolars or bicuspids
12 molars
crown
the portion that projects above the gum
root
embeded in the alveolus
apical foramen
an opening in which blood vessels and nerves enter into the root canal
gingival sulcus
shallow groove that surrounds the neck of each tooth
pulp cavity
found in the interior of the crown and the root
dental pulp
a loose connective tissue richly supplies with vessels and nerves
dentin
the solid portion of the tooth, which form the bulk of the tooth
enamel
covering for the exposed part of the crown, is the hardest and most compact part of the tooth
pharynx
located just beyond the mouth, it is a passageway for both respiration and digestion
nasoparynx
the upper portion that lies above the soft palate
oropharynx
the middle portion that lies between the palate and the hyoid bone. The opening to the oral cavityis found at this level
laryngopharynx
the lowest portion that lies below the hyoid and opens inferiorily to the larynx anteriorly and he esophagus posteriorly
peristalsis
wavelike muscle contractions to carry food in the esophagus
chyme
partially digested food in a liquid state
doudenum
the first 12 inches of the small intestine
jejunum
the next approximately 8 feet of the small intestines
heum
the last 12 feet of small intestines
cecum
a pouchlike structure that forms the beginning of the large intestine attached to the appendix
the appendix is attached to this part of the large intestines
cecum
4 divisions of the colon
ascending, transverse, descending, and Sigmoid
parotid glands
located on either sid eof the face slightly below the ear (salivary)
sublingual glands
located below the tounge
submandibular glands
located in the floor of the mouth
Carbohydrate metabolism
changes glucose to glycogen and stores it until needed by the body cells
fat metabolism
liver serves as a storage place and acts to desaturate fats before releasing them into the blood stream
the liver stores
stores iron, vitamin b12, A, D, E, and K. It also produces body heat
Liver functions
carbohydrate metabolism, fat metabolism, protein metabolism, storage place, detoxification, and manufactures
the liver manufactures
bile- a digestive juice
fibrinogen and prothrombin- coagulants essential for blood clotting
heparin- anticoagulant that helps prevent the coltting of blood
blood proteins
gallbladder
a membranous sac that is attached to the liver in which excess bile is stored and concentrated. concentration is accomplished by absorption of water from the bile into the mucosa of the gallbladder
pancreas
a large, elongated gland situated behind the stomach, which contains cells that produce digestive enzymes. Other cells secrete the hormones insulin and glucagon directly into the bloodstream
agglutinat (root)
clumping
all (root)
other
-ergy
work
ana-
up
-phylaxis
protection
an-
lack of
-emia
blood condition
anis/o
unequal
cyt (root)
cell
-osis
condition (usually abnormal)
coagul (root)
clots
-ant
forming
trans-
across
fus (root)
to pour
-ion
process
bas/o
base
-phil
attraction
eosin/o
rose-colored
erythr/o
red
erythrocyte
red blood cell
-poiesis
formation
poiet (root)
formation
-in
chemical
vas(at)
vessel
granul/o
little grain
hemat/o
blood
-crit
to separate
log (root)
study of
-ist
one who specializes
-oma
mass, fluid collection, tumor
-globin
globe, protein
calc (root)
lime, calcium
glyc (root)
sweet, sugar
hypo-
deficient
hyper-
excessive
leuk/o (a)
white
leukocyter
white blood cell
lymphadenitis
inflammation of the lymph glands
aden/o
gland
ang (root)
vessel
monocyte
largest leukocyte, which has one nucleus
neutr/o
neither
neutrophil
leukocyte that stains with natural dies
-penia
lack of
phag/o
eat, engulf
thromb (root)
clot
polycythemia
condition of too many red blood cells
phlebitis
inflammation of a vein
lymphadenopathy
enlargement of lymph nodes
The process of removing blood from a vein is called
Venipuncture and phlebotomy
Which condition occurs when an area of heart muscle dies or is permanently damaged because of an inadequate supply of oxygen to that area?
myocardial infarction
An abnormality of the rhythm or rate of the heartbeat is termed
dysrhythmia and arrhythmia
ech/o
reflected sound
-graphy
recording
2 abbreviations for electrocardiograph
ECG and EKG
electrocardiophonograph
device used to record heart sounds
embolism
condition in which there is an obstruction of a blood vessel by foreign substances or a blood clot
endocarditis
inflammation of the heart
endocardium
inner lining of the heart
In the term electrocardiophonograph, the combining form phon/o means
sound
Left-sided heart failure is commonly called:
congestive heart failure
Another name for the mitral valve is:
bicuspid valve
Noise, a sound of venous or arterial origin, heard on auscultation is called
bruit
Hypertension is frequently called:
silent killer
In the term angina pectoris, the root angin means:
to choke
A fast heartbeat is known as:
A fast heartbeat is known as
tachycardia
Another term for a heart attack is:
myocardial infarction
In the term oximetry, the suffix -metry means:
measurement
The most common site for taking a pulse is at the ________ artery.
radial
In the term ischemia, the suffix -emia means:
blood condition
_______ is used to analyze the size, shape, and movement of structures inside the heart.
Echocardiography
The surgical excision of the inner portion of an artery is called
endarterectomy
A type of medication which increases the tone of the heart is called
cardiotonic
A condition in which a blood clot obstructs a blood vessel is known as:
embolism
Blood is transported from the right and left ventricles to all body parts by the
arteries
An ________ records the electrical activity of the heart
electrocardiograph, ECG or EKG
Blood pressure reading that is higher than normal
hypertension
the process of using an electrical shock to the heart to restore its rhythm to a normal pattern
cardioversion
A condition in which fatty deposits build up in the inner linings of the artery walls
peripheral artery disease (PAD)
chest pain
angina
Most common form of heart disease, narrowing of the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart
coronary heart disease CHD