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The ________ plane vertically divides the body, as it passes through the midline, to form a right and left half.
Which term means pertaining to body organs enclosed within a cavity, especially the abdominal organs?
A common skin condition characterized by frequent episodes or redness, itching and thick dry scales is:
A condition that is characterized by the progressive loss of bone density and thinning of bone tissue is called:
The membrane that forms the covering of bones except at their articular surfaces is called:
Medical terminology is a specialized language, with its origin arising from what influence on medicine?
They are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods. They are unspecialized. They give rise to specialized cell types.
this tissue forms the outer layer of skin, covers organs, lines cavities, and form tubes, ducts, and portions of certain glands; responsible for protection, absorption, secretion, and excretion
is most abundant of tissue and is responsible for supporting organs of the body, providing sheaths for muscles, and connects muscle to bone and bones to joints
Muscle Tissue consist of three different types of tissue:
Voluntary or Striated, Cardiac, Involuntary or smooth
vertically divides the body as it passes through the midline to form a right and left half
Coronal or frontal Plane
any plane that divides the body at right angles to the midsagittal plane into anterior and posterior portions
a hollow portion of the human torso extending from the neck to the pelvis that contains the organs of respiration digestion reproduction and elimination
chest area containing the heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea, thymus, major blood and lymph vessels
space below the diaphragm, commonly referred to as the belly, that contains the kidneys, stomach, intestines, and other organs of digestion
the space formed by the bones of the pelvis and contains the organs of elimination and reproduction
Right upper quadant
contains the right lobe of the liver, gallbladder, pert of the pancreas, and part of the small and large intestines
Left upper quadrant
contains the left lobe of the liver, stomach spleen, part of the pancreas, and part of the small and large intestines
Right lower quadrant
contains part of the small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, and right ureter
Left lower quadrant
contains part of the small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, and left ureter
the outermost, horny layer, consisting of dead cells filled with a protein substance called keratin. It forms the protective covering of the body that varies in thickness
a translucent layer lying directly beneath the stratum corneum. It is not seen in thin skin and is also composed of dead or dying cells.
consist of several layers of living cells that are in the process of becoming a part of the previously mentioned strata. The cells are active in the keratinization (they lose their nuclei and become hard or horny) process.
the innermost layer is composed of several layers of living cells capable of mitosis or cell division. It is also called the mucosum or malpighii and is responsible for regeneration of the epidermis. Damage to this layer of skin necessitates the use of skin grafts. Melanin (pigment that gives color to the skin) is formed here.
also called the corium or true skin. The dermis is composed of connective tissue containing lymphatics, nerves and nerve endings, blood vessels, sebaceous and sweat glands, elastic fibers, and hair follicles. It is attached to underlying structures by subcutaneous tissue that supports, nourishes, insulates, and cushions the skin
Upper or Papillary Layer
arranged into parallel rows of microscopic structures called papillae (produces ridges that are one's fingerprints or footprints)
attached to each side of the follicle; when skin is cooled or the individual has an emotional reaction, the skin forms "gooseflesh" as a result of contraction by these muscles.
Sebaceous (oil) Glands
the oil-secreting glands of the skin. The tiny ducts open into the hair follicle and their secretion lubricates the hair and the skin. Sebum secretion, which is controlled by the endocrine system, varies with age, puberty, pregnancy, and senility.
Sudoriferous (sweat) Glands
the approximately 2 million sweat glands are coiled and tubular in structure. They are distributed over the entire surface of the body with the exception of the margin of the lips, glans penis, and the inner surface of the prepuce. The sweat glands secrete sweat or perspiration, which: . Helps to cool the body by evaporation.. Rids the body of waste through the pores of the skin
substances that are oily in nature. These are used for dry skin caused by aging, excessive bathing, and psoriasis.
agents that promote loosening of the horny layers of the skin. These agents are used for acne, warts, psoriasis, corns, calluses, and fungal infections.
Local Anesthetic Agents
agents that inhibit the conduction of nerve impulses from sensory nerves and thereby reduce pain and discomfort; can be used topically to reduce discomfort associated with insect bites, burns, and poison ivy.
D. Antihistamine Agents
agents that act to prevent the action of histamine; used to help relieve symptoms, such as itching, in allergic responses, and contact dermatitis.
agents that destroy or stop the growth of microorganisms. They are used to prevent infection associated with minor skin abrasions and to treat superficial skin infections and acne. Several antibiotic agents are combined in a single product to take advantage of the different antimicrobial spectrum of each drug.
agents that destroy or inhibit the growth of fungi and yeast. These are used to treat fungus and/or yeast infections of the skin, nails, and scalp.
agents used to relieve the swelling, tenderness, redness, and pain of inflammation. They consist of:
used to treat contact dermatitis, such as poison ivy, when symptoms are severe.
agents that prevent or inhibit the growth of pathogens. Generally applied to the surface of living tissue.
Scratch (Epicutaneous) or Prick Test
test involves the placement of a suspected allergen in the uppermost layers of the epidermis, usually if the skin of the forearm or back. Redness or swelling at the scratch site within 10 minutes indicates allergy to the substance, rendering a positive test result. If no reaction occurs, the test result is negative.
Sweat Test (Chloride)
a test performed on sweat to determine the level of chloride concentration on the skin. In cystic fibrosis there is an increase in skin chloride.
a microscopic examination of a small piece of tissue that has been surgically scraped from a pustule to identify types of viral infections.
Eczema (Atopic or Contact Dermatitis)
a chronic skin disorder categorized by scaly and itching rashes. It is common in infants with at least half of those cases clear by age 3. In adults, the condition is chronic. Sufferers often have a family history of eczema or an allergic condition.
common skin inflammation characterized by frequent episodes of redness, itching, and thick, dry, silvery scales on the skin. Most common in individuals between the ages of 15 and 35 and is thought to be an inherited, autoimmune disease. The disease presents with a buildup of dead skin and the formation of thick scales within a few days versus the normal one month period of time that it takes new skin cells to move up from lower layers to the surface. Treatment depends on the extent and severity of the disorder
functions of bones
1. provide shape, support, and framework of the body
2. provide protection for internal organs
3. formation of blood cells
4. provide attachment for skeletal muscles
5. make movement possible
bones are in close contact with each other therfore there is no movement. There is no joint cavity, for example, cranial suture
circular movement of joint, combining movements; possible in shoulder joint, hip joint, and trunk around a fixing point
the act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot is turned downward or backward
the act of rotating the arm or the leg so that the palm of the hand, or sole of the foot, is turned forward or upward
abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium
disease in which an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood causes sodium urate crystals (trophi) to be deposited in the joints, producing arthritis
a chronic autoimmune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities
carpal tunnel syndrome
Painful, inflammatory condition that affects the carpal or wrist portion of the median nerve. Often associated with repetitive actions such as typing. Can be caused by physical trauma or hereditary conditions that inflame tendons around the nerve, disrupting hand function and resulting in numbness and pain.
Complete fracture that is straight across the bone at right angles to the long axis of the bone.
ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone, common sports fracture, spread along the length of the bone
occurs at the lower end of the radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on his or her hands
a fracture seen exclusively in children occurring where the matrix is undergoing calcification and chondrocytes are dying.
Each muscle is made up of a group of fibers held together by connective tissue and enclosed in a fibrous sheath
Muscles that are controlled by the conscious part of the brain and attach to bone
skeletal muscles voluntary or striated
also known as involuntary, visceral, orunstriated. Smooth muscle is not controlled by the conscious part of the brain. These muscles are under the control of the autonomic nervous system and in most cases, produce relatively slow contractions with greater degree of extensibility. These muscles lack the cross-striped appearance of skeletal muscle. This type of muscles includes internal organs of the digestive, respiratory, and urinary tract plus certain muscles of the eye and skin
- the muscle of the heart or myocardium is involuntary but striated in appearance. It is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and specialized neuromuscular tissue located within the right atrium
occurs with disuse of muscles over a long period of time. It is caused by prolonged bed rest and immobility
Myasthenia Gravis (MG)
a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal muscles of the body. The primary symptom of MG is muscle weakness that increases during periods of activity and improves after periods of rest
Muscular Dystrophy (MD)
a group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal or voluntary muscles that control movement
and/or gastrointestinal tract, this continuous tract begins with the mouth and ends with the anus
a thin fold of mucous membrane that connects the free portion of the tongue to the underlying epithelium, which prevents extreme movement of the tongue
8 incisors (four front teeth)
4 canines (cuspids)
8 premolars or bicuspids
covering for the exposed part of the crown, is the hardest and most compact part of the tooth
the middle portion that lies between the palate and the hyoid bone. The opening to the oral cavityis found at this level
the lowest portion that lies below the hyoid and opens inferiorily to the larynx anteriorly and he esophagus posteriorly
a pouchlike structure that forms the beginning of the large intestine attached to the appendix
liver serves as a storage place and acts to desaturate fats before releasing them into the blood stream
carbohydrate metabolism, fat metabolism, protein metabolism, storage place, detoxification, and manufactures
the liver manufactures
bile- a digestive juice
fibrinogen and prothrombin- coagulants essential for blood clotting
heparin- anticoagulant that helps prevent the coltting of blood
a membranous sac that is attached to the liver in which excess bile is stored and concentrated. concentration is accomplished by absorption of water from the bile into the mucosa of the gallbladder
a large, elongated gland situated behind the stomach, which contains cells that produce digestive enzymes. Other cells secrete the hormones insulin and glucagon directly into the bloodstream
Which condition occurs when an area of heart muscle dies or is permanently damaged because of an inadequate supply of oxygen to that area?
condition in which there is an obstruction of a blood vessel by foreign substances or a blood clot
_______ is used to analyze the size, shape, and movement of structures inside the heart.
the process of using an electrical shock to the heart to restore its rhythm to a normal pattern
A condition in which fatty deposits build up in the inner linings of the artery walls
peripheral artery disease (PAD)
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