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AP Human Geography Unit 6
Unit 6: Industrialization & Economic Development
Terms in this set (89)
Several industries (or members of the same industry) group together for mutual benefit.
Assembly-line production for mass consumption. Each person on the system performs a particular task for an area of expertise.
Break of bulk point
A location where goods are transferred from one type of carrier to another. (e.g. Barge to Railroad)
Weight/Bulk Gaining Industry
An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs.
Weight/Bulk Reducing Industry
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs.
The principle that an area produces the items for which it has the greatest ratio of advantage or the least ratio of disadvantage in comparison to other areas, assuming free trade exists.
Process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment.
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
The process of growth, expansion, or realization of potential; bringing regional resources into full productive use.
A form of tourism, based on the enjoyment of scenic areas or natural wonders, that aims to provide an experience of nature or culture in an environmentally sustainable way.
A firm with manufacturing activities for which the cost of transporting activities or product is not important in determining location of production; an industry or firm showing neither market nor material orientation.
A reference to the increasing interconnection of all parts of the world as the full range of social, cultural, political, and economic processes becomes international in scale and effect.
Gross Domestic Product
The total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country during a specified time period, usually a calendar year.
Gross National Income
the total value of goods and services produced by a country per year plus net income earned abroad by trade (Exports - Imports)
Human Development Index (HDI)
Is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
The term applied to the rapid economic and social changes in agriculture and manufacturing that followed the introduction of the factory system to the textile industry of England in the last quarter of the 18th century.
The basic structure of services, installations, and facilities needed to support industrial, agricultural, and other economic development; included are transport and communications, along with water, power, and other public utilities.
That part of a national economy that involves productive labor not subject to formal systems of control or payment; essentially money that is not regulated or taxed by the government.
International Division of Labor
Corporations and others can draw from labor markets around the world; made possible through improvements in communication and transportation systems. Many countries involved in the manufacture of a single good (t-shirts, computers, etc)
Just in Time Production
Seeks to reduce inventories for the production process by purchasing inputs for arrival just in time to use and producing output just in time to sell.
Least Cost Theory
The view that the optimum location of a manufacturing establishment is at the place where the costs of transporting raw materials and finished goods are taken into consideration.
The tendency of an economic activity to locate close to its market; a reflection of large and variable distribution.
A disparaging reference to economic and political policies by which major developed countries are seen to retain or extend influence over the economies of less developed countries and peoples, mimicking colonialism/imperialism.
Producing abroad parts or products for domestic use or sale, or hiring entities outside of the company to perform tasks not central to the business.
Quaternary Sector Activities
Those parts of the economy concerned with research, with the gathering and processing of information/data, and with administration of the other economic activity levels.
Quinary Sector Activities
A sometimes separately recognized subsection of tertiary activity management functions involving highest level decision making in all types of large organizations.
Secondary Sector Activities
Those parts of the economy involved in the processing of raw materials derived from primary activities in altering or combing materials to produce commodities of enhanced utility and value.
In industry, the tendency to substitute one factor of production for another in order to achieve optimum plant location (ie cheaper labor overseas for increased transportation costs)
Tertiary Sector Activities
Those parts of the economy that fulfill the exchange function, that provide market availability of commodities, and that bring together consumers and providers of services.
Transnational Corporation (TNC)
A large business organization operating in at least two separate national economies; a form of multinational corporation.
World Systems Theory
Theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein and illuminated by his three-tier structure (core, periphery, semi-periphery) proposing that social change in the developing world in inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world.
Rostow's Modernization Model
A five stage model of development. 1. Traditional Society 2. Transitional Stage 3. Take off 4. Drive to Maturity 5. High Mass Consumption.
Unprocessed natural products used in production
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
A very small, often short-term loan made to an impoverished entrepreneur, as in an underdeveloped country (ex. Grameen Bank)
Millennium Development Goals
Eight development goals adopted by the Millennium Declaration of 2000, consisting of 18 targets to be achieved by the year 2015. It includes 1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, 2) achieving universal primary education, 3) reducing child mortality, 4) and promoting gender equality.
A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
European Union (EU)
Europe's trading bloc free trade amount the members of the union. As well as a single European currency the euro and a central bank.
Right to Work
Refers to statutes that prohibit unions from making union membership a condition of employment.
The northern industrial states of the United States, including Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, in which heavy industry was once the dominant economic activity. In the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, these states lost much of their economic base to economically attractive regions of the United States and to countries where labor was cheaper, leaving old machinery to rust in the moist northern climate.
U.S. region, mostly comprised of southeastern and southwestern states, which has grown most dramatically since World War II.
area planned for high technology where agglomeration built on a synergy among technological companies occurs.- Hearth of innovation
Export Processing Zones
Areas where government create favorable investments ad trading conditions to attract export-orientated industries.
five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa
Factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico.
South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and the then-British colony of Hong Kong: first countries to adopt the international trade alternative
International Monetary Fund//a United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies
A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
Model encourages countries to isolate fledgling businesses from competition of large international corporations.
Development at a rate that can be maintained and not overdeplete resources
Atmosphere traps some of the sun's rays
rising average global temperature
links materials, production, and distribution
minerals, fossil fuels
solar, wind, tidal, geothermal
Economies of Scale
increase in the number of units produced to reduce per-unit cost
businesses located right next to each other to cut into market share (gas stations at same exit)
line on world map dividing MDCs and LDCs
changes a country must make if it does not pay back development loans
Closed Economic State
countries, often communist, that are not open to foreign investment and limit imports
government sells industry to private corporations
government owns major industries in a country
NIC - Newly Industrialized Country
recent and rapid development to where a country can no longer be classified a LDC
producers in LDCs are compensated to a level that they can support livelihood
Economies of Scope
the increase in the number of different products in a single brand name
Low-Benefit Service Jobs
hourly employees, minimal vacation time, particularly food services or hotel industry workers
High-Benefit Service Jobs
salaried employees, medical/retirement/vacation perks, such as teachers, nurses, "white-collar" professions
industries that tend to be located in most large urban areas
inventory is compiled without people having to count items in stock, normally achieved by UPC (universal product codes), AKA bar codes.
Sustainable Development Goals
17 goals adopted by the UN in 2015 to reduce disparities between developed and developing countries by 2030, with a focus on sustainability
World economic system characterized by a more flexible set of production practices in which goods are not mass produced; instead, production has been accelerated and dispersed around the globe by multinational companies that shift production, outsourcing it around the world and bringing places closer together in time and space than would have been imaginable at the beginning of the 20th century
MERCOSUR (Southern Common Market)
An alliance that promotes the free circulation of goods, services, and production factors, and has a common external tariff and commercial policy among member nations in South America
industries designed to stimulate growth through the establishment of various supporting industries
when two regions through an exchange of commodities can specifically satisfy each others demands
neoliberal economic policies
policies which seek to limit governments' role in setting economic policy
export processing zones (EPZs)
zones established by many countries in the periphery and semi-periphery where they offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to attract foreign trade and investment
An economy that relies on the export of primary commodities for a large share of its export earnings and hence economic growth
Free Trade Zone (FTZ)
A tariff-free zone located within or near a port city.
developed, economically, socially thriving w/ technology EX. US, Canada, Western Europe
nations ranking in between core and periphery countries, with some attributes of the core countries but with less of a central role in the global economy
the least developed and least powerful nations; often exploited by the core countries as sources of raw materials, cheap labor, and markets
An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
a permanent global institution to promote international trade and to settle international trade disputes
a natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms.
Literacy Rate (economic indicator)
Shows the percentage of people in a country who can read and write at an elementary school level.
The massive accumulation of loans taken out by third world countries and owed to northern banks and governments from the 1970s onward
A tax on imported goods
economic development, or growth, is not uniform over an entire region, but instead takes place around a specific pole.
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