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26 terms

Anatomy and Physiology of Speech

STUDY
PLAY
SKELETAL SYSTEM
Structural components
Bones
Cartilage
Ligaments
Joints

Functions
Support
Protection (organs)
Leverage in movement
Produce blood cells
Storage of minerals (calcium and phosphorus)
MUSCULAR SYSTEM
Structural components
Skeletal muscle
Cardiac muscle (heart)
Smooth muscle (walls of hollow organs, e.g., stomach)

Functions
Movement
Heat production
Heart production
NERVOUS SYSTEM
Structural components
Brain
Spinal cord
Nerves
Sense organs (eyes, ears, tongue, & sensory receptors in the skin)

Functions
Communication system that detects changes in internal and external body environment and by way of a nerve impulse, responds by producing some effect in muscle or gland
ELEVATION OF BONES
Condyle
Crest
Head
Process
Spine
Tuberosity
CONDYLE- ELEVATION OF BONES
Rounded or knuckle like process
CREST- ELEVATION OF BONES
Prominent Ridge
HEAD: - ELEVATION OF BONES
An enlargement at one end of the bone
PROCESS: - ELEVATION OF BONES
A bony prominence
TUBEROSITY- ELEVATION OF BONES
A large rounded projection
DEPRESSION OF BONES
Fissure
Foramen
Fossa
Groove
Meatus
Sinus
Sulcus
FISSURE - DEPRESSION OF BONE
Cleft or deep groove
FORAMEN - DEPRESSION OF BONE
An opening or perforation in bone or cartilage
FOSSA - DEPRESSION OF BONE
Pit or hollow
MEATUS - DEPRESSION OF BONE
tube or passageway
SINUS -DEPRESSION OF BONE
A cavity within a bone
SULCUS - DEPRESSION OF BONE
A groove
THE SKELETON: AXIAL
Head & trunk
THE SKELETON: APPENDICULAR
Upper and lower limbs
TISSUES
Connective tissues (intercellular, supportive)
Bone or Osseous
Cartilage
Ligaments
Tendons
Blood

Muscular tissues (contractile)
Striated
Smooth
Cardiac

Nervous tissues (communicative)
OSSEOUS/BONE: TISSUE
Connects
Supports
And protects parts of the body
Well supplied by blood vessels
CARTILAGE: TISSUE
3 types:
hyalin: closely packed fibers. firm but flexible. most abundant in the body. found at the costal cartilages of the ribs, cartilage rings of the trachea. Provides body movement with minimum of friction and resistance.

elastic: Fibers not closely packed, external ear, epiglottis, auditory tubes

fibrous: thick bundles found in areas that must withstand heavy pressure. Intervetebral discs, knee joint, hip joint
LIGAMENT: TISSUE
Go from bone to bone or cartilage to cartilage.
Tendons
Muscle to bone or muscle to cartilage
Arthrosis (joint) is where two bones or cartilages meet, they are said to articulate with each other
JOINT
Fibrous: have little or any movement is permitted called synarthrosis, found in the cranial bones where such joints are called sutures.

Cartilaginous: Are not common and usually found at midline. Found in the pubic bone and the vertebral joint.

Synovial: Also called diarthrodial joints. These permit relatively free movement, found in the TMJ
MUSCLE TISSUE
Striated/skeletal
Smooth/nonstriated
Cardiac: combination of striated & nonstriated

Striated - arranged in parallel bundles so that there is a beginning or origin and an end or insertion

Non-striated - form networks that surround tubes such as arteries and the intestinal tract so they narrow the tube when they contract
MUSCLES: CONTINUED
Muscles can be attached to bones, cartilage, skin or other muscles
Muscles are described by identifying its

Origin
Insertion
Direction or course
Action
Nerve supply
NERVE TISSUE
Composed of cells called neurons
Some form the Central Nervous System
Some Connect the brain to the spinal cord
Some stimulate muscles which are called motor/efferent
Nerves carrying sensation such as vision and pain are called sensory/afferent

Efferent (excitatory) vs Afferent (sensory)