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History Mid-Term 2 Review
Terms in this set (75)
Haymarket Square Riot
This took place on May 4th, 1884 in Chicago. Workers from the McCormick Reaper Factory were on strike and decided to protest. This forever associated the Knights of Labor with anarchists and lowered their popularity and effectiveness; membership declined, and those that remained fused with other labor unions. What was the May 4, 1884 labor protest at the McCormick Reaper Factory in Chicago that turned deadly when police officers and civilians were killed by a dynamite bomb? bring in scabs
Led by Eugene Debs. This was a nonviolent strike that brought about a shut down of western railroads. It took place against the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894, because of a wage cut of Pullman workers, where prices increased. It was ended by the president due to the interference with the mail system, and brought a bad image of unions. leads to collapse of ARU
Pennsylvania steel mill strike outside of Pittsburgh, PA in 1892. This strike pitted steel workers from the A.A. against armed Pinkerton guards in a week's long standoff. People were killed on both sides and the strike did not end for months. Violent strike
Who was the English bullet maker that invented the cheap steel production process during the late 1800s in Sheffield, England? This process and converter was named after the inventor.
1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents., The pioneer in the manufacturing of affordable automobiles with his Model T, which was built using assembly line methods. In 1914, he announced that he would pay workers $5 a day. Workers were happy, and Ford had many customers. By 1924, his car sold for less than $300. Who revolutionized assembly line production for automobiles in Dearborn, Michigan in 1913?
He was a Scottish immigrant was a rags to riches story in the Pittsburgh steel industry. He used the Bessemer Process and became one of the wealthiest men in the world making 25 million a year. Famously wrote, Wealth: The Gospel of Wealth. He feared ridicule for possessing so much money, so he spent the rest of his life donating $350 million of it to charity, pensions, and libraries. Who was the Robber Baron (monopoly man/tycoon) that controlled the American steel industry in and around Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania? He authored Wealth or The Gospel Wealth in 1889.
He bought Carnegie's entire business at $400 million. ________ took Carnegie's holdings, added others, and launched the United States Steel Corporation in 1901, a company that became the world's first billion-dollar corporation (it was capitalized at $1.4 billion). an American financier during Civil War, banker, philanthropist, and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time.
John D. Rockefeller
An American oil magnate who revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, he founded the Standard Oil Company and aggressively ran it until he officially retired in 1897. Who was the Robber Baron (monopoly man/tycoon) that controlled the American oil industry? He perfected both Horizontal Integration and Vertical Integration to dominate the oil industry?
American railroad tycoon (Robber Baron) who controlled the Grand central line New York Central and the Hudson Railroad. His family used his fortune to build the university that bears his name in Nashville, Tennessee. They also built the largest home in the United States, the Biltmore Estate Asheville, North Carolina. Built the railroad...involved in shipping
Ida B. Wells
was an early female leader of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and led an anti-lynching crusade and called on the federal government to take action.
Booker T. Washington
born slave; educatued at moral land grant built for African Americans (Hampton) ; Founder of Institute--believed the way to equality was through vocational education and economic success; he accepted social separation. He laid out his plan in The Atlanta Compromise.
Born free; went to Fisk- First African American to graduate with pHD from Harvard. believed that education was meaningless without equality. He supported political equality for African Americans by helping to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). He laid out his plan in The Souls of Black Folk.
Elected in 1912-1916- Democrat 28th President of the United States; led the United States in World War I and secured the formation of the League of Nations- childens buraeu
26th President of the United States; hero of the Spanish American War; Panama Canal was built during his administration; `Speak softly but carry a big stick'" Was not elected in 1900
In 1886, ______________ founded the American Federation of Labor (AFL). It consisted of an association of self-governing national unions, each of which kept its independence, with the AF of L unifying overall strategy. He demanded a fairer share for labor. He was a skilled cigar maker so the focus was on skilled labor in the Union. He simply wanted "more," and sought better wages, hours, and working conditions. The AFL won the National Labor Day in 1894.
Eugene V. Debs
The American Federation of Labor inspired this man to lead the American Railway Union (ARU) and director of the Pullman strike; he was imprisoned along with his associates for ignoring a federal court injunction to stop striking. While in prison, he read Socialist literature and emerged as a Socialist leader in America. Ran for pres. 5 times- Woblees¨
Secretary of state that came up with the open door policy. Open up trade with China
John J. Pershing
Known as ¨Black Jack¨ and a general of the United States Army ww1 .(AEF) He was most famous as the commander of the American Expeditionary Force on the Western Front in World War I, 1917-18.
William Howard Taft
The National War Labor Board was established and headed by ________________, which allowed for any unemployed man to be drafted into the army. He served as the 27th President of the United States and as the tenth Chief Justice of the United States, the only person to have held both offices.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
He served as the 32nd president of the United States. He directed the United States government during most of the Great Depression and World War II.
American politician that served as the 31st president of the United States during the Great Depression. During his presidency he kept a laissez-faire approach in allowing business to do business. Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.
He served as the 25th president, ran on a pro-Monroe Doctrine platform in 1896 and won the election. He guided the United States to
victory in the Spanish-American War and had entered his second term of office as a fairly popular laissez-faire president. He had defeated William Jennings Bryan and Eugene V. Debs again in the Election of 1900. Leon Czolgosz assasinated him. His secretary of state, John Hay, created the open door policy.
Warren G. Harding
He served as the 29th president. His greatest achievement was the Washington Naval
Conference (1921-1922) but his greatest scandal was Teapot Dome from 1920-1923. He collapsed and died in office in 1923. He kept a laissez-faire approach in allowing business to do business. His campaign compromise was ¨ä return to normalcy¨.
He was the most infamous of gang member, and his St. Valentine's Day Massacre in 1929. He was finally caught for tax evasion and sent to Alcatraz Prison.
He was the first to fly solo across the Atlantic when he flew the Spirit of St. Louis from New York to Paris in 1927. His son was kidnapped and killed by gangsters.
William J. Simmons
He performed the 2nd Ku Klux Klans (1915-1944) rebirth at Stone Mountain, Georgia.
James Buchanan Duke
Absorbed his main competitors into the American Tobacco Company in 1890. He donated to Trinity College, which then changed its name to Duke University. American tobacco/cigarette tycoon who used much of his money to build a major university on Durham, North Carolina. He also developed hydroelectric power in North Carolina. The university and the energy company still bear his name.
Interstate Commerce Commission
This was an early attempt to regulate railroads.
Pendleton Act 1883
(the Magna Carta of civil-service reform) - this awarded government jobs based on ability/merit, not patronage. The law prohibited financial assessments on jobholders and established a merit system of making appointments to office on the basis of aptitude rather than "pull." It divided politics from patronage, but it drove politicians into "marriages of convenience" with business leaders. Congressional act passed on 1883 during Chester A. Arthur's presidency to provide public works, civil service, and limit patronage in government departments. Merit based jobs.
Written by German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman, it secretly proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico. It proposed that if Mexico fought against the U.S. and the Central Powers won, Mexico could recover Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California from the U.S. It was intercepted and published on March 1, 1917.
George Washington Carver
was a crusader for educational opportunities for African Americans.
22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes
Was a 1904 amendment to the Monroe Doctrine that allowed the United States to intervene (politically and economically) in the Latin America, the Caribbean, and Central America. Known as "Big Stick Diplomacy." The Venezuela Crisis of 1902-1903 led to this ______________________.
wrote The Jungle, to expose the corruption in the American meat corporations and the plight of the common immigrant family's struggle to achieve the American Dream. The Jungle: "I aimed at the public's heart, and by accident I hit it in the
a middle-class woman dedicated to uplifting the urban masses; college educated (one of first generation); established the Hull House in Chicago in 1889 (most prominent American settlement house, mostly for immigrants); condemned war and poverty; won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931
Established that senators were to be elected directly. This law was intended to create a more democratic, fair society.
provided for direct election of U.S. senators. Previously they had been elected by the House. Primary elections were also established in all major elections.
prohibited the sale/consumption of alcohol from 1919 to 1933.
Carrie Chapman Catt, Hellen Keller, and scores of other brave Suffragists picked up the torch to help women gain the right to vote. In 1920, women received the right to vote with the passage of the ___________________.
Chinese Exclusion Act 1882
What was the Congressional Act that was passed by Congress and President Chester A. Arthur in 1882 to limit Asian immigration into America for nearly a ten-year period?
Immigration Restriction Act of 1921
Restricted the flow immigrants moving in to the US amid fears of immigrants taking too many jobs
Jim Crow Laws
___________ were state and local laws enforcing racial segregation in the Southern United States. Enacted after the Reconstruction period, these laws continued in force until 1965. Black Codes also laid the groundwork for the passage of these laws. What were the laws that were passed after Reconstruction in which African Americans in the South were denied the full voting rights and basic equal rights of citizenship?
Theodore Roosevelt's "______________" embraced the three Cs: control of the corporations, consumer protection, and the conservation of the United States' natural resources.
Wilson continued a spirit of progressiveness with his "_______________" program that passed the Clayton Anti-Trust Act
and established the Federal Reserve banking system.
Emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one.
Sherman Anti-trust act
1890- Antitrust legistation stating: "Every contract, combination, or conspiracy in restraint of trade is declared to be illegal." Terminology in the act was vague and difficult to prove.
-Tried to control monopolies, but it was used to curb labor unions through loopholes
-forbade combinations in restraint of trade.
Clayton Anti-trust act
Lengthened Sherman Anti-Trust Act's list of practices. Exempted labor unions from being called trusts, legalized strikes and peaceful picketing by labor union members.
Open Door Policy
Issued by U.S. secretary of state John Hay, the statement reaffirmed the principle that all countries should have equal access to any Chinese port open to trade.
League of Nations
this was a proposed union of the world powers after World War I. President wilsons 14th point in his plan for peace. This was a proposal of a peace keeping organization.
30th President, He was a small government conservative and has been criticized for being too laissez-faire in handling big business. "Stay Cool with ___________."1923-1929, He repalced the corrupt Harding, restoring honesty to the presidency. He also accelerated tax cuts and wanted to keep tariffs in place.
¨Monkey Trial¨ - Highschool teacher in Dayton, Tennessee; lost job, was arrested & charged with teaching the theory of evolution
The Great Train Robbery
a 1903 American Western film by Edwin S. Porter. Twelve minutes long, it is considered a milestone in film making. Thomas Edison was one of the inventors of the movie, but in 1903, the real birth of the American movie
On January 8, 1917, Wilson delivered this address to Congress. This was a set of idealistic goals for peace. Here were the main points...
No more secret treaties. Freedom of the seas was to be maintained. A removal of economic barriers among nations. Reduction of armament burdens. Mandate system (an adjustment of colonial claims in the interests of natives and colonizers. ) "Self-determination," or independence for oppressed minority groups that choose their government A League of Nations, an international organization that
would keep the peace and settle world disputes.
Treaty of Versailles
this was signed on June 28, 1919, in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles, five years to the day after Gavrilo Princip assassinated Franz Ferdinand. The U.S. Senate did not approve this. The French and English insisted on punishment of Germany (forcing them to pay reparations). The League of Nations was created (no U.S.) National boundaries were redrawn, creating many new nations. Most of the Fourteen Points were abandoned, which made Germany feel betrayed by the U.S. Wilson left Paris unhappy with the finalized treaty.Problems continued for the boundaries, economies, governments, and societies of Western and Central Europe.
Quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build this, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal. Wilson persuaded Congress to repeal this Act of 1912 (when American shippers did not pay tolls on the canal).
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries
Wilson, unlike his two previous predecessors, didn't pursue an aggressive foreign policy, as he stopped this in China and Latin America.
German subs sank many ships, including this, a British passenger liner that was carrying arms and munitions as well (May 7, 1915). The attack killed 1,198, including 128 Americans. The Germans had issued fliers prior to this setting sail that warned Americans the ship might be torpedoed.
Ulysses S. Grant
The Republicans nominated Civil War General______________, who was a great soldier but had no political experience. He was elected by "waving the bloody shirt," or reliving his war victories, and used his popularity to elect him, though his popular vote was only slightly ahead. His slogan: "let there be peace" Corruption occurred while he was in office. Who was the Civil War general that became the 18th president of the United States? His two terms in office were riddled with corruption, but he did manage to eliminate KKK and provide rights for freedmen while he was president.
Plessy v. Ferguson
In 1896, the Supreme Court ruled in the case of ___________________ that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional. Thus "Jim Crow" segregation was legalized.
people lived where they worked
Alfred Thayer Mahan
U.S. Naval Captain wrote a book, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783, argued that every successful world power once held a great navy.
This book (and the presidency of Chester A. Arthur) helped start a naval race among the great powers and moved the U.S. to naval supremacy. It motivated the U.S. to look to expanding overseas.
On September 6, 1901, a 28-year-old anarchist, _______________ shot President William McKinley in the stomach during a public reception at the Pan-American Exposition, a World's Fair in Buffalo, NY.On October 29, 1901, he was executed by electric chair at New York's Auburn Prison. His last words, "I killed the president for the good of the laboring people, the good people," he said in the moments before the sentence was carried out. "I am not sorry for my crime."
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers; popularized in the late nineteenth century by Jospeh Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst
Nickname given to young reporters of popular magazines. These magazines spent a lot of money on researching and digging up "muck" This name was given to them by Pres. Roosevelt- 1906. These investigative journalists were trying to make the public aware of problems that needed fixing.
The process of petitioning a legislature to introduce a bill. It was part of the Populist Party's platform in 1891, along with referendum and recall. These all intended to make the people more responsible for their laws and allow them to make political decisions rather than the legislature.
When citizens vote on laws instead of the state or national governments. This originated as a populous reform in the populist party, but was later picked up by the progressive reform movement.
The people could possibly remove an incompetent politician from office by having a second election.
Muller v. Oregon
1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health
Frances E. Willard
an American educator, temperance reformer, and women's suffragist. Her influence was instrumental in the passage of the Eighteenth (Prohibition) and Nineteenth (Women Suffrage) Amendments to the United States Constitution. became the national president of the World Woman's Christian Temperance Union, or World WCTU, in 1879, and remained president for 19 years. She developed the slogan "Do everything" for the women of the WCTU to incite lobbying, petitioning, preaching, publication, and education.
Pure Food and Drug Act
It was created in 1906 and was designed to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals. It was made to protect the consumer.
Head of the U.S. Forest Service under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them
Mexican revolutionary combination bandit/freedom fighter, murdered 16 Americans in January of 1916 in Mexico and then killed 19 more a month later in New Mexico.
This man was assassinated on June 28, 1914 while paying a state visit to Sarajevo. This man was heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and he was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. His assassination is what began the war.
This man was the leader of the Committee on Public Education. He encouraged journalists to exercise "self-censorship" when reporting war news, and most complied by covering the war largely as the government wished.
First Red Scare
1919 to 1920, denotes two distinct periods of strong Anti-Communism in the United States: This one was about worker (socialist) revolution and political radicalism.
William Jennings Bryan
This Democratic candidate ran for president most famously in 1896 (and again in 1900). His goal of "free silver" (unlimited coinage of silver) won him the support of the Populist Party. Though a gifted orator, he lost the election to Republican William McKinley. He ran again for president and lost in 1900. Later he opposed America's imperialist actions, and in the 1920s, he made his mark as a leader of the fundamentalist cause and prosecuting attorney in the Scopes Monkey Trial.
Black Tuesday 1929
This is the name given to October 29, 1929. This date signaled a selling frenzy on Wall Street--days before stock prices had plunged to desperate levels. Investors were willing to sell their shares for pennies on the dollar or were simply holding on to the worthless certificates.
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