52 terms

Physical Science Chapter 18

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Light
A form of electromagnetic radiation that behaves with wave-like properties.
Electromagnetic Radiation
A form of energy that behaves like a wave.
Wavelength
The distance between 2 points (or crests) on adjacent waves.
Crest
The top or highest point of a wave.
Trough
The bottom or lowest point of a wave.
Amplitude
The height from the origin to the crest.
Origin
The baseline of a wave where it's flat. There are no waves.
Frequency
The number of wave cycles to pass a given point during a specific time frame.
Hertz
Waves per second.
Frequency
______________ is measured in hertz.
Wave, particle
Light can act as both a ________ and a ________________.
Electron Configuration
Arrangement of electrons in an atom.
Ground State
Lowest possible energy level of an atom. They are as close to the nucleus as possible.
Excited State
When an atom has more potential energy than it does at ground state.
Gains
When an atom _______ energy, the electrons move from ground state to excited state.
Electromagnetic Radiation
When an electron moves from excited state to ground state, the atom loses energy in the form of ______________________ _______________.
Quantum Number
Specific properties about atomic orbitals and the electrons in them.
Orbital
3D region around the nucleus where electrons are most likely located.
Principle Quantum Number
Symbol is n
Indicates the main energy level where electrons are located
As principal quantum number increases, the electrons energy and distance from the nucleus increases.
Angular Momentum Quantum Number
Symbol is a cursive l (l )
Indicates the shapes of the orbitals
S, P, D, F
The 4 Orbital Shapes are called:
Magnetic Quantum Number
Symbol is m
Indicates the orientations of the orbitals around the nucleus
1, 3, 5, 7
The orbital S has ___ orientation, P has ___, D has ___, and F has ___
Spin Quantum Number
Symbol is +½ or -½
Indicates the 2 fundamental spin states of the electrons
2
A single orbital can only hold ___ electrons.
Aufbau Principle
Electrons occupy the lowest energy level that it can.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
No 2 electrons will have the same set of 4 quantum numbers.
Hund's Rule
Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by 1 electron before an orbital can be occupied by a second electron.
1, 2
D block elements drop back ___ energy level, and F block elements drop back ___ energy levels.
Orbital Notation
Electron configuration that uses arrows.
Electron Configuration Notation
Electron configuration that replaces arrows with superscripts.
Noble Gas Notation
Electron configuration that goes to the last noble gas, and then continues with electron configuration notation.
Combined
Atoms like to be _________________ with something else.
Chemical Bond
Most atoms are held together by a _______________ _______ to form a compound.
Chemical Bond
Mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of 2 or more atoms.
High
Atoms bond because most atoms have a ________ potential energy when they are by themselves. That makes them unstable, so chemical bonding makes the potential energy lower and a stable compound is formed.
Ionic Bond
Electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions.
Metals
____________ are the only things that can combine to form a cation because they lose electrons.
Nonmetals
__________________ are the only things that can combine to form anions because they gain electrons.
Ionic Bonds
___________ _________ only occur between metals and nonmetals.
Metal, Nonmetal
Electrons transfer from the __________ to the ________________.
Ionic Compound
The name given when a metal and a nonmetal form a compound.
Covalent Bond
Occurs when 2 nonmetals share a pair of electrons between them.
Molecule
The name given to a compound that is formed by a covalent bond.
Hydrogen, Metallic
The other 2 less common types of chemical bonds:
Pure Ionic Bond
Occurs when the metal completely gives up an electron to a nonmetal.
Pure Covalent Bond
Equal sharing of a pair of electrons.
Polar Covalent Bond
Occurs when there is an uneven sharing of electron pairs.
Polar Covalent Bonds
_________ _________________ ________ create a positive side to the compound, and a negative side.
Electronegative
When electrons are closer to an atom, the atom is more ___________________.
Chemical Formula
Indicates the relative number of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound. It is made of the atomic symbol and superscripts. (EX: H2O)
X-Rays, UV Rays, Microwaves, Gamma Rays, Visible Light
5 examples of electromagnetic radiation: