A form of electromagnetic radiation that behaves with wave-like properties.
A form of energy that behaves like a wave.
The distance between 2 points (or crests) on adjacent waves.
The top or highest point of a wave.
The bottom or lowest point of a wave.
The height from the origin to the crest.
The baseline of a wave where it's flat. There are no waves.
The number of wave cycles to pass a given point during a specific time frame.
Waves per second.
______________ is measured in hertz.
Light can act as both a ________ and a ________________.
Arrangement of electrons in an atom.
Lowest possible energy level of an atom. They are as close to the nucleus as possible.
When an atom has more potential energy than it does at ground state.
When an atom _______ energy, the electrons move from ground state to excited state.
When an electron moves from excited state to ground state, the atom loses energy in the form of ______________________ _______________.
Specific properties about atomic orbitals and the electrons in them.
3D region around the nucleus where electrons are most likely located.
Principle Quantum Number
Symbol is n Indicates the main energy level where electrons are located As principal quantum number increases, the electrons energy and distance from the nucleus increases.
Angular Momentum Quantum Number
Symbol is a cursive l (l ) Indicates the shapes of the orbitals
S, P, D, F
The 4 Orbital Shapes are called:
Magnetic Quantum Number
Symbol is m Indicates the orientations of the orbitals around the nucleus
1, 3, 5, 7
The orbital S has ___ orientation, P has ___, D has ___, and F has ___
Spin Quantum Number
Symbol is +½ or -½ Indicates the 2 fundamental spin states of the electrons
A single orbital can only hold ___ electrons.
Electrons occupy the lowest energy level that it can.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
No 2 electrons will have the same set of 4 quantum numbers.
Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by 1 electron before an orbital can be occupied by a second electron.
D block elements drop back ___ energy level, and F block elements drop back ___ energy levels.
Electron configuration that uses arrows.
Electron Configuration Notation
Electron configuration that replaces arrows with superscripts.
Noble Gas Notation
Electron configuration that goes to the last noble gas, and then continues with electron configuration notation.
Atoms like to be _________________ with something else.
Most atoms are held together by a _______________ _______ to form a compound.
Mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of 2 or more atoms.
Atoms bond because most atoms have a ________ potential energy when they are by themselves. That makes them unstable, so chemical bonding makes the potential energy lower and a stable compound is formed.
Electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions.
____________ are the only things that can combine to form a cation because they lose electrons.
__________________ are the only things that can combine to form anions because they gain electrons.
___________ _________ only occur between metals and nonmetals.
Electrons transfer from the __________ to the ________________.
The name given when a metal and a nonmetal form a compound.
Occurs when 2 nonmetals share a pair of electrons between them.
The name given to a compound that is formed by a covalent bond.
The other 2 less common types of chemical bonds:
Pure Ionic Bond
Occurs when the metal completely gives up an electron to a nonmetal.
Pure Covalent Bond
Equal sharing of a pair of electrons.
Polar Covalent Bond
Occurs when there is an uneven sharing of electron pairs.
Polar Covalent Bonds
_________ _________________ ________ create a positive side to the compound, and a negative side.
When electrons are closer to an atom, the atom is more ___________________.
Indicates the relative number of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound. It is made of the atomic symbol and superscripts. (EX: H2O)