2.9 (13 reviews)
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 248
Terms in this set (248)
AtmosphereA mixture of gases that surround the Earth. (nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide)Layers of the Earth's Atmospheretroposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exposphereTraposhere* First layer above the earth's surface * Weather occurs here *Pressure/ Temperature decreases with altitudeStratosphere*Less Dense * Temperature Increases with altitude * Ozone Layer * Jet Aircrafts fly hereMesophere* Temperature decreases with altitude * Meteors or rock fragments burn up *IonosphereThermoshere* Auroras * Air is very thin * Temperature increases with altitude * Space shuttles orbits hereExosphere* Outer most layer w/ few particles * Merges with spaceOzone Layer* Layer of the stratosphere * Absorbs most of the Sun's harmful ultraviolet radiationIonosphere* An electrified region w/ large amounts of ions and electrons * btw thermospher and mesophere * Aurora BorealisAurora Borealis* Northern Lights Display - Formed in the upper layers of the earth's atmosphere (ionosphere) * Caused by excited oxygen & nitrogen * Northern HemisphereAustralis Borealis* Southern Lights Display * Caused by excited oxygen & nitrogen * Southern HemisphereName the 5 OceansPacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern, ArcticTectonic Plates* Large movable plates under the Earth's surface. * Located btw Lithosphere and Asthenosphere * EarthquakesPANGAEAA supercontinent that assembled at the end of the Paleozoic Era. (Tectonic Plates)Ring of FireA major volcanic belt formed by the many volcanoes that rim the Pacific OceanMountain rangesFormed by tectonic plates Himalayan, Western Ghats, Eastern GhatsMineralA solid substance on Earth that has a specific chemical composition and crystalline structure. Its atoms are structurally arrangedRocksA naturally formed aggregate, or mixture, of minerals; have varied chemical compositionsErosionProcesses by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away (i.e. weathering, glaciation)WeatheringThe breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface thru exposure to the earths atmospherGreenhouse EffectNatural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases.Global WarmingAn increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)CirrusHigh-altitude clouds that are thin, feathery tufts of ice crystals. No precipitation. (Cirrostratus) (Cirrocumulus)AltostratusMiddle level (6500 - 20,000 ft), gray sheet, thinner layer allows sun to appear as through ground glass. Precipitation: rain or snow. (Altocumulus) (Nimbotratus)CumulusLow level clouds - Dense thunderstorms (Stratus) (Cumulonimbus)The Solar SystemConsist of the sun, moon, 8 planets and their moon, meteors, asteroids, and cometsCometsLoose collections of rock, ice, and cosmic dust that orbits around the sun. Gives off gas and dust in the form of a tail as it passes close to the sunAsteroids(minor planets)- small rocky worlds which orbit the sun, Mars and Jupiter * icy nucleus heats by the solar windGalaxyA huge group of single stars, star systems, star clusters, dust, and gas bound together by gravityCellsBasic units of lifeBig Bang TheoryThe theory that the universe originated in a huge explosion that released all matter and energy.Cell MembraneA thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell by osmosis, diffusion, active transportDiffusionMovement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.OsmossisMovement of water thru permeable membranes to equalize concentration on both sides of the membraneActive TransportEnergy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration differenceRibosomeA cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis.PhotosynthesisPlants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugarsTissueA group of similar cells that perform the same function.Vascular TissuePlant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body.Four Types of Tissue* Epithelial - protection, secretion and absorption * Connective - holds everything together * Muscle - provides movement and force * Nervous - brain, spinal cord, peripheral nervous systemIntegumentary System* skin, nails, hair, sweat glands * protects the internal structures of the body from damage, prevents dehydration, stores fat and produces vitamines and hormones.Skeletal System* supports and protects the body while giving it shape and form * bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, cartilageMuscular Systemenables movement through the contraction of muscles.Respiratory Systemprovides the body with oxygen via gas exchange btw air from the outside environment and gases in the blood. (lungs, nose, trachea, bronchi)circulatory systemCirculation of Blood - to transport nutrients and gasses to cells and tissues throughout body (heart, blood, and blood vessels)ArteriesBlood vessels that carry blood (oxygen and other nutrients) away from the heartVeinsBlood vessels that carry blood (carbon dioxide and other wastes) back to the heartCapillaries* Connect w/ the arteries and veins * Smallest of the blood vessels * Oxygen, nutrients, and wastes are exchanged within the tissues.Endocrine SystemGlands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.HormonesChemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another (pituitary gland)Immunological SystemProtects the body from infections Lymphatic System (Spleen, Tonsils, Thymus Gland)Urinary/Excretory Systemsremoves wastes and maintains water balance in the body. (kidneys, urinary bladder, urethra, ureters)ATPA substance present in all living cells that provides energy for many metabolic processes and is involved in making RNA. (adenosine triphosphate)prokaryotic cella single cell or organisms that does NOT have organized nucleieukaryotic cellCell with a nucleus (surrounded by its own membrane) and other internal organelles.meisosSexual reproduction - Cell Division - Most Common number of chromosomes are reduced by half Genetically DiverseGenetic MutationsChanges in the genetic material of cells that passes from one generation to another.TaxomonyThe hierarchical groups of related organisms (Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species)3 Domains of Organism* Archea (Prokaryotic Single Celled Organisms) * Bacteria (Uni Celled Prokaryotic micro-organisms) * Eukaryotes (Organisms whose cells have nucleus and sp. organelles)Solar EclipseThe Moon passes directly between the Sun and Earth and casts a shadow over part of EarthLunar EclipseEarth blocks sunlight from reaching the moonApogeeWhen the Moon is at its farthest distance from EarthNatural SelectionA process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.The Law of InertiaNewtons First Law. the velocity of an object does not change unless a force is applied.New MoonA moon that is completely dark because it's unlit side is facing EarthCentripetal ForceAn attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a stateKinetic EnergyEnergy of motionPotential EnergyEnergy that is stored and held in readinessPhototropismA growth response to lightThe Outer PlanetsThey all have rings, gaseous surfaces and are all bigger than Earth.Gamma RaysElectromagnetic waves with the shortest wavelengths and highest frequenciesThe Law of InteractionNewtons 3rd Law. For every action there is an equal and opposite reactionSpeciesThe narrowest range of organisms within the biological taxonomyGravitational Force...Parts of eukaryotic cell1Nucleus-Chromosomes, Chromatin, Nucleoli, Neclear Membrane 2Ribosomes 4Endoplasmic reticulum 4Golgi complex 5lysosomes 6Mitochondria 7Plastids 8Cell wall 9Vacuoles 10CytoskeletonNucleusbrain of cell. Contains chromosomes, chromatin, nucleoli, nuclear memebrane Contain DNAChromosomesDNA, RNA, protienChromatinLoose Chromosomes; When the cell is not dividingNucleoliRibosomes are madeNuclear membranePores that let RNA out of nucleus.RibosomesProtein synthesis. They make itEndoplasmic reticulumfolded area, "Roadway" of cell, allow transport of material. Smooth endoplasmic- no ribosomes Rough endoplasmic- ribosomesGolgi ComplexStacked structure, It sorts, modifies, and packages the molecules within cell. These molecules are sent out of cell or to other organelles within cell. "package and transport proteins"LysosomesONLY IN ANIMAL CELL. Digestive enzymes break down food.. Responsible for aging process.Mitochondrialarge organelles that make ATP, to supple energy. Found in muscle cells. Contain own DNA, reproducing themselves. ONLY FOUND IN ANIMAL CELL. "CREATE ENERGY ATP"PlastidsPhotosynthetic organisms only!. Have their own DNA and can reproduce. Containing: Chloroplasts chromoplasts AmyloplastsChloroplastsFound in plastids in Plants!. Green in color, function photosynthesos and capture light.ChromoplastsFound in plastids in Plants!. Make and store yellow and orange pigments, provide color to leaf.AmyloplastsFound in plastids in Plants!.. Store starch and stores food. Found in roots like potatoes.Cell WallFOUND IN PLANT CELLS ONLY. Cellulose and fibers.VacuolesHold food and pigments.. very large in plants to fill with water.Cytoskeletonprotein filaments attached to plasma memebrane and organelles. Deal with cell movement.CytoplasmEverything outside of nucleusCell membraneAllows the passage of needed materals in and waste out.What are only found in Plant cells?Chloroplasts and cell wallDNA?Codes for protein. building blocks of life.. Has 2 strains contain genes that dictate triats.Group of genes makes up?ChromosomesWhat is detected in pregnancy tests?HCG. keeps level of progesterone elevated to feed and develop embryo.FissionRelease of energy. Process of splitting an atom into 2 or smaller parts. Does not happen in nature-occurs with heavy elements. Occurs during a chain reaction. Can be controlled reactionsFusionRelease of energy. "Fusing" or joining together of 2 or smaller atoms to form a large one. Occurs in nature- stars. Produce more energy and is less dangerous Occurs under extreme temperature and pressure. Cant be controlled reactionsgametesex cell; egg or spermhomologuesChromosomes that contain same information.Diploid2 in number, They are a pair of chromosomes (somatic cell)Somatic cellany cell of a multicellular organism other than a germ cellHaploid1 in number, is half the chromosome pair.Mitosis: When cell is dividing stages: interphaseInterphase- G1 pd Growth- the cell is growing S2 pd synthesis- New DNA and enzymes are made G2 pd growth- New proteins and organelles are made to prepare for cell divisionMitosis: Mitotic stagesIPMAT 1. Interphase- Chromation is loose and replicate."Technicially not stage of mitosis 2. Prophase- Chromatine condense, Nucleous disappears and breaks apart. 3. Metaphase- Chromosomes line up (middle stage) 4. Anaphase- Split in hald and homologous chromosomes separate. Chromosomes form with identical sets. 5. Telophase- 2 nuclei with full set of DNA identical to parent cell.MeiosisContain same 5 stages as Mitosis, but is repeated to reduce chromosomes number by 1 half.Who is the father of genetics?Gregor Mendel: Found two factors governed each trait, traits came in several formsGenotypeGenes organism hasPhenotypetraite expressedBacteria: make upProkaryotic single cell organism without cell nuclei Absorb nutrients through cell wall or through photosynthesis. Reproduce during binary fission(asexual reproduction)Binary fissionasexual reproduction by a separation of the body into two new bodies.duplicates its genetic material, or (DNA), and divides into two parts (cytokinesis), with each new organism receiving one copy of DNA. Used by prokaryotic organismsAnimal Cells?Multicellular, eukaryotic. Obtain nutrient by eating food.Plant Cells?Multicellular, eukaryotic, Obtain nutrients from soil to roots and convert sunlight into energy-photosynthesis.Fungi Cells?Eukaryotic, multicelluar. obtain nutrients from other organisms, usually dead ones. Mating sexes: plus and minusProtists cells?Eukaryotic, single sell. Obtain nutrients by ingesting small molecues and cells. reproduce asexually/binary fission.Whose the father of taxonomy?Carolous LinnaeusThe order of classification of living things:Kingdom, Phylum, Subphylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species "King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti"What are the 5/6 kingdoms for living organismsBook has: Monera, protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalie Online: Instead of Monera, Archaea, eubacteria. Archaea formally- archaebacteria-not actually bacteria.Kingdom Monerasingle cell, with no cell nuclei... bacteria. Prokaryotic cell.Kingdom ProtistaSingle cell, they have cell nuclei. Algae and protozoa. Eukaryotic.Kingdom FungiSingle or multi cell, mushrooms, mold, lichen, yeast Eukaryotic.Kingdom PlantaeMulticelluar plants.Kingdom AnimaliaMulticellular animals.Vascular vs. nonvascular plantsnonvascular plants- do not require vascular tissue (xylem and phloem). No true leaves, stems, roots. Vascular plants- enables plants to grow with vascular tissue (xylem and phleom).What is ecology?Study of organisms.Taiga BiomeLocated far north and far south of equator, close to poles. Plant life, harsh winters. animals- moose, mink, weasels.Tundra BiomeLocated farther north and farther south then taiga. Lischens, mosses. polar bears.Polar or permafrost BiomeRarely above freezing. life is limited.3 basic components of food?protein, - muscle growth carbohydrates,- provide energy fat- stored for body when doesnt get enough food5 basic food groupsgains, meats, dairy, fruits, and veggiesWhat are the 3 types of muscle tissue?Skeletal muscles- voluntary, attached to bones. Smooth muscles- involuntary, found in organs, enables function for digestion and respiration Cardiac muscle- type of smooth muscle. found in heart.What is empirical?phenomenon must be asses through tests and observations.What is a control in the experiment?we compare our results.What is the constants of a experiment?factors that we keep the same in all experiments to get reliable results.What is the independent variable?Factors we change.What is the dependent variable?the changes that arise from the experienmentStructure of the Earth's CompositionInner Core, Outer Core, Mantel, Crust, and AtmpshereBiosphereSum of all ecosystemsLithosphereOuter portion of the planet: the crust and upper mantleHydrospheremass of water on the planetOrigin of the EarthFormed from a solar nebulaThe Planet's beginningsinner core, outer core, mantle, upper mantle, crustTypes of RocksIgneous, Sedimentary, MetamorphicIgneous RocksFormed when molten magna coolsSedimentaryFormed by deposition of organic matter or sedimentsMetamorphicSubjecting any rock type to different temperature or pressureArchaeon Era3.5-1.5 BYA: Ancient EraProterosoic Era1.5-.57 BYA: First Animal EraPaleozoic Era570-225 MYA: Ancient Animcal EraMesozoic Era225-65 MYA: Age of dinosaursCenozoic Era65-0 MYA: Age of mammalsQuatenary Period2-0 MYA: Age of HominidsPlate tectonicsplates are moving in different directions at different speedsconvergent boundariesplates are crashingdivergent boundariesplates are pulling aparttransform boundariesplates are sideswiping eachotherFormation of waveswind and air pressurewater cycleevaporation, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, runoffsalinityfreshwater has lower salinityBirth of a startstar is born from a nebula- this phase is called a protostar. A protostar must maintain equallibriumNebulaa cloud of dust and gasLife and Death of a starNebula- protostar-fusion ignition- red giant, super giant-white dwarf/black whole- deathclassification of starsranged from hottest to coldest: blue, white, yellow, orange, redOrder of the planetsMy Very Excellent Mother Just Sent Us Noodles Mercery, venus, earth, mars jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptunecommetfrozen gases or and ice that follow the sun in an elongated orbitasteroidrocky objectsgalaxya massive system of stars and stellar matter, dust clouds, gasseseclipseoccurs when an object is covering the sun or moon to create a shadowlunar phasesnew moon, waxing cresent, waxing gibbious, full moom, waning gibbious, waning cresent, new moonCarbonfundimental building block: can form the most compounds7 major characteritics of living things1. Cellular organization 2. Reproduction 3. Homeostasis 4. Metabolism 5. Growth and Development 6. Heredity 7. Responsivenesscell division2 types mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is most common.Mitosiscell splits and creates 2 identical daughter cellsmeiosiscreates sperm and egg cellsOrgan SystemsNervous, Digestive, Curculatory, ReproductiveNervous SystemThe body system of nervous tissues--organized into the brain,spinal courd, and nerves--that send and receive messages and integreate the body's activities.Digestive Systemthe system that makes food absorbable into the bodyCirculatory SystemThe human body system that contians the heart, blood, and all of the blood vessels. It delivers all the nutrients to the cellsReproductive Systemsystem of organs involved in producing offspringtypes of reproduction in plantsasexual and sexual reproductionasexual reproductionreproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parentsexual plant reproductionTYPE OF PLANT REPRODUCTION THAT INVOVLES SEEDS PRODUCED BY FEMALE AND MALE PLANTS, WHICH ARE THEN CROSSED-POLLINATED WITH HELP FROM INSECTS OR OTHER ANIMALS.geneticsThe scientific study of heredityevolutionchange in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organismsadaptationscharacteristics of organisms that enhance their survival and reproduction in specific environmentsmutationa random error in gene replication that leads to a changeosmosisthe diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membranetaxonomythe scientific study of how living things are classified: Domane, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, speciesenergy pyramidproducer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, decomposersmatterthat which has mass and occupies spaceelementsa molecule composed of one kind of atom; cannot be broken into simpler units by chemical reactions.structure of an atomprotons, neutrons, and electronsprotonpositively charged particleneutronneutral particle of an atomelectronsnegatively charged particlesatomic masstotal mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom, measured in atomic mass unitsatomic numberthe number of protons in the nucleus of an atomradioactive delaythe process by which an atomic nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting ionizing particlescompoundsThey contain at least two or more different elements. Ex. water which is H2O (hydrogen and oxygen)law of gravityNewton's idea that "what goes up, must come down"Chemical changesa change in which one or more substances combine or break apart to form new substancesmixturesTwo or more substances that are mixed together but not chemically combinedphysical changeschanges that alter a substance without changing its compositionpHa value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.motionthe state in which one object's distance from another is changingnewton's law of motionfor every action there is an equal and opposite reactionkinetic energythe energy of motionpotential energystored energyconservation of energya fundamental principle stating energy cannot be created nor destroyed but only changed from one form to anothertemperaturethe degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)thermal heatkinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or moleculesheat transferthe movement of energy from a warmer object to a cooler objectsimple machinesa machine with few moving parts, making it easier to do work (there are 6: lever, pulley, wheel and axle, inclined plane, wedge, and screw)electricityenergy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductormagnatismProperties of attraction possesed by magnetselectrolysisThe process of decomposing a chemical compound by the passage of an electric current.light waveshave medium-sized wavelengths, consist of tiny particles of radiation travel fast and straight, they don't require a material to travel through, and they can move through a vacuum.sound waveschanges in pressure caused when molecules of air or fluid collide with one another and then move apart againproperties of wavesWavelength, Frequency, Velocity, Amplitudegreenhouse effectwarming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmospheredoppler effectAn observed change in the frequency of a wave when the source or observer is movingcommunicable diseasea disease that can be communicated from one person to anotherscientific methoda series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusionsexperimental groupsubjects in an experiment to whom the independent variable is administeredcontrol groupthe group that does not receive the experimental treatment.prophasethe first stage of mitosismetophase2. all of the chromosomes are lined up in the middle of the spindle fibers.anaphase3. the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindletelophase4. the final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomescerebral cortexthe brain's center for information processing and controlbrainstemresponsible for automatic survival functionscerebellumhelps coordinate voluntary movement and balancehippocampusa neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storagewhich gases make of the majority of the earth's atmospherenitrogen and oxygenfusionprocess of releasing atomic energy by bombarding a dense element with neutrons and splitting its nucleuswavelength lengthsuv, v, b, g, y, o, r