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Terms in this set (248)
-Produces food for the plant cell by photosynthesis-Contains chlorophyll **Found in plant cells only
-stores food, water, minerals, waste. **Large vacuole found in plant cells, while many small vacuoles found in animal cells
Golgi Body or Golgi Apparatus
-flat curved sacs used for storing and packaging - Packages proteins made by the ribosomes and sends them to other parts of the cell where needed **Found in both plant & animal cells
Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough & Smooth)
-Folded membranes that act like a road in the cell, transporting substances such as proteins. Rough ER are rough due to the presence of ribosome; Smooth ER lacks ribosomes **Found in both plant & animal cells
-A sac in the cell that has digestive enzymes that can break down cell waste and old cell parts that have died **Found mostly in animal cells, rarely in plants
-Located inside the Nucleus - Stores RNA (genetic material)
-Produces the Ribosomes **Found in both plant & animal cells
Things to remember: plant cell vs animal cell
Plant cells: chloroplasts, cell wall, vacuole is larger than in animal cell
Animal cells: no chloroplasts, no cell wall, vacuole is smaller than those in plant cell
A subdivision of the upper mantle situated below the lithosphere, a zone of malleable rock that moves over time
Earth's thickest layer made of hot rock - below the lithosphere/ asthenosphere but above the core. 70% of the earth's volume
has a solid inner/ liquid outter
made of iron, nickle alloy with small amounts of oxygen, silicon, and sulfur
A mixture of gases that surround the Earth.
(nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide)
Layers of the Earth's Atmosphere
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exposphere
* First layer above the earth's surface
* Weather occurs here
*Pressure/ Temperature decreases with altitude
* Temperature Increases with altitude
* Ozone Layer
* Jet Aircrafts fly here
* Temperature decreases with altitude
* Meteors or rock fragments burn up
* Air is very thin
* Temperature increases with altitude
* Space shuttles orbits here
* Outer most layer w/ few particles
* Merges with space
* Layer of the stratosphere
* Absorbs most of the Sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation
* An electrified region w/ large amounts of ions and electrons
* btw thermospher and mesophere
* Aurora Borealis
* Northern Lights Display - Formed in the upper layers of the earth's atmosphere (ionosphere)
* Caused by excited oxygen & nitrogen
* Northern Hemisphere
* Southern Lights Display
* Caused by excited oxygen & nitrogen
* Southern Hemisphere
Name the 5 Oceans
Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern, Arctic
* Large movable plates under the Earth's surface.
* Located btw Lithosphere and Asthenosphere
A supercontinent that assembled at the end of the Paleozoic Era.
Ring of Fire
A major volcanic belt formed by the many volcanoes that rim the Pacific Ocean
Formed by tectonic plates
Himalayan, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats
A solid substance on Earth that has a specific chemical composition and crystalline structure. Its atoms are structurally arranged
A naturally formed aggregate, or mixture, of minerals; have varied chemical compositions
Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away (i.e. weathering, glaciation)
The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface thru exposure to the earths atmospher
Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases.
An increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
High-altitude clouds that are thin, feathery tufts of ice crystals. No precipitation. (Cirrostratus) (Cirrocumulus)
Middle level (6500 - 20,000 ft), gray sheet, thinner layer allows sun to appear as through ground glass. Precipitation: rain or snow.
Low level clouds - Dense
The Solar System
Consist of the sun, moon, 8 planets and their moon, meteors, asteroids, and comets
Loose collections of rock, ice, and cosmic dust that orbits around the sun. Gives off gas and dust in the form of a tail as it passes close to the sun
(minor planets)- small rocky worlds which orbit the sun, Mars and Jupiter
* icy nucleus heats by the solar wind
A huge group of single stars, star systems, star clusters, dust, and gas bound together by gravity
Basic units of life
Big Bang Theory
The theory that the universe originated in a huge explosion that released all matter and energy.
A thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell by osmosis, diffusion, active transport
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Movement of water thru permeable membranes to equalize concentration on both sides of the membrane
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
A cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis.
Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
A group of similar cells that perform the same function.
Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body.
Four Types of Tissue
* Epithelial - protection, secretion and absorption
* Connective - holds everything together
* Muscle - provides movement and force
* Nervous - brain, spinal cord, peripheral nervous system
* skin, nails, hair, sweat glands
* protects the internal structures of the body from damage, prevents dehydration, stores fat and produces vitamines and hormones.
* supports and protects the body while giving it shape and form
* bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, cartilage
enables movement through the contraction of muscles.
provides the body with oxygen via gas exchange btw air from the outside environment and gases in the blood. (lungs, nose, trachea, bronchi)
Circulation of Blood - to transport nutrients and gasses to cells and tissues throughout body (heart, blood, and blood vessels)
Blood vessels that carry blood (oxygen and other nutrients) away from the heart
Blood vessels that carry blood (carbon dioxide and other wastes) back to the heart
* Connect w/ the arteries and veins
* Smallest of the blood vessels
* Oxygen, nutrients, and wastes are exchanged within the tissues.
Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.
Chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another (pituitary gland)
Protects the body from infections
Lymphatic System (Spleen, Tonsils, Thymus Gland)
removes wastes and maintains water balance in the body.
(kidneys, urinary bladder, urethra, ureters)
A substance present in all living cells that provides energy for many metabolic processes and is involved in making RNA.
a single cell or organisms that does NOT have organized nuclei
Cell with a nucleus (surrounded by its own membrane) and other internal organelles.
Sexual reproduction - Cell Division - Most Common
number of chromosomes are reduced by half
Changes in the genetic material of cells that passes from one generation to another.
The hierarchical groups of related organisms
(Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species)
3 Domains of Organism
* Archea (Prokaryotic Single Celled Organisms)
* Bacteria (Uni Celled Prokaryotic micro-organisms)
* Eukaryotes (Organisms whose cells have nucleus and sp. organelles)
The Moon passes directly between the Sun and Earth and casts a shadow over part of Earth
Earth blocks sunlight from reaching the moon
When the Moon is at its farthest distance from Earth
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
The Law of Inertia
Newtons First Law. the velocity of an object does not change unless a force is applied.
A moon that is completely dark because it's unlit side is facing Earth
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state
Energy of motion
Energy that is stored and held in readiness
A growth response to light
The Outer Planets
They all have rings, gaseous surfaces and are all bigger than Earth.
Electromagnetic waves with the shortest wavelengths and highest frequencies
The Law of Interaction
Newtons 3rd Law. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
The narrowest range of organisms within the biological taxonomy
Parts of eukaryotic cell
1Nucleus-Chromosomes, Chromatin, Nucleoli, Neclear Membrane
brain of cell. Contains chromosomes, chromatin, nucleoli, nuclear memebrane
DNA, RNA, protien
Loose Chromosomes; When the cell is not dividing
Ribosomes are made
Pores that let RNA out of nucleus.
Protein synthesis. They make it
folded area, "Roadway" of cell, allow transport of material.
Smooth endoplasmic- no ribosomes
Rough endoplasmic- ribosomes
Stacked structure, It sorts, modifies, and packages the molecules within cell. These molecules are sent out of cell or to other organelles within cell.
"package and transport proteins"
ONLY IN ANIMAL CELL. Digestive enzymes break down food.. Responsible for aging process.
large organelles that make ATP, to supple energy. Found in muscle cells.
Contain own DNA, reproducing themselves. ONLY FOUND IN ANIMAL CELL.
"CREATE ENERGY ATP"
Photosynthetic organisms only!. Have their own DNA and can reproduce. Containing:
Found in plastids in Plants!. Green in color, function photosynthesos and capture light.
Found in plastids in Plants!. Make and store yellow and orange pigments, provide color to leaf.
Found in plastids in Plants!.. Store starch and stores food. Found in roots like potatoes.
FOUND IN PLANT CELLS ONLY. Cellulose and fibers.
Hold food and pigments.. very large in plants to fill with water.
protein filaments attached to plasma memebrane and organelles. Deal with cell movement.
Everything outside of nucleus
Allows the passage of needed materals in and waste out.
What are only found in Plant cells?
Chloroplasts and cell wall
Codes for protein. building blocks of life.. Has 2 strains contain genes that dictate triats.
Group of genes makes up?
What is detected in pregnancy tests?
HCG. keeps level of progesterone elevated to feed and develop embryo.
Release of energy. Process of splitting an atom into 2 or smaller parts.
Does not happen in nature-occurs with heavy elements.
Occurs during a chain reaction. Can be controlled reactions
Release of energy. "Fusing" or joining together of 2 or smaller atoms to form a large one.
Occurs in nature- stars.
Produce more energy and is less dangerous
Occurs under extreme temperature and pressure.
Cant be controlled reactions
sex cell; egg or sperm
Chromosomes that contain same information.
2 in number, They are a pair of chromosomes (somatic cell)
any cell of a multicellular organism other than a germ cell
1 in number, is half the chromosome pair.
Mitosis: When cell is dividing stages: interphase
G1 pd Growth- the cell is growing
S2 pd synthesis- New DNA and enzymes are made
G2 pd growth- New proteins and organelles are made to prepare for cell division
Mitosis: Mitotic stages
1. Interphase- Chromation is loose and replicate."Technicially not stage of mitosis
2. Prophase- Chromatine condense, Nucleous disappears and breaks apart.
3. Metaphase- Chromosomes line up (middle stage)
4. Anaphase- Split in hald and homologous chromosomes separate. Chromosomes form with identical sets.
5. Telophase- 2 nuclei with full set of DNA identical to parent cell.
Contain same 5 stages as Mitosis, but is repeated to reduce chromosomes number by 1 half.
Who is the father of genetics?
Gregor Mendel: Found two factors governed each trait, traits came in several forms
Genes organism has
Bacteria: make up
Prokaryotic single cell organism without cell nuclei
Absorb nutrients through cell wall or through photosynthesis.
Reproduce during binary fission(asexual reproduction)
asexual reproduction by a separation of the body into two new bodies.duplicates its genetic material, or (DNA), and divides into two parts (cytokinesis), with each new organism receiving one copy of DNA.
Used by prokaryotic organisms
Multicellular, eukaryotic. Obtain nutrient by eating food.
Multicellular, eukaryotic, Obtain nutrients from soil to roots and convert sunlight into energy-photosynthesis.
Eukaryotic, multicelluar. obtain nutrients from other organisms, usually dead ones. Mating sexes: plus and minus
Eukaryotic, single sell. Obtain nutrients by ingesting small molecues and cells. reproduce asexually/binary fission.
Whose the father of taxonomy?
The order of classification of living things:
Kingdom, Phylum, Subphylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
"King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti"
What are the 5/6 kingdoms for living organisms
Book has: Monera, protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalie
Online: Instead of Monera, Archaea, eubacteria.
Archaea formally- archaebacteria-not actually bacteria.
single cell, with no cell nuclei... bacteria. Prokaryotic cell.
Single cell, they have cell nuclei. Algae and protozoa.
Single or multi cell, mushrooms, mold, lichen, yeast
Vascular vs. nonvascular plants
nonvascular plants- do not require vascular tissue (xylem and phloem). No true leaves, stems, roots.
Vascular plants- enables plants to grow with vascular tissue (xylem and phleom).
What is ecology?
Study of organisms.
Located far north and far south of equator, close to poles. Plant life, harsh winters. animals- moose, mink, weasels.
Located farther north and farther south then taiga. Lischens, mosses. polar bears.
Polar or permafrost Biome
Rarely above freezing. life is limited.
3 basic components of food?
protein, - muscle growth
carbohydrates,- provide energy
fat- stored for body when doesnt get enough food
5 basic food groups
gains, meats, dairy, fruits, and veggies
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
Skeletal muscles- voluntary, attached to bones.
Smooth muscles- involuntary, found in organs, enables function for digestion and respiration
Cardiac muscle- type of smooth muscle. found in heart.
What is empirical?
phenomenon must be asses through tests and observations.
What is a control in the experiment?
we compare our results.
What is the constants of a experiment?
factors that we keep the same in all experiments to get reliable results.
What is the independent variable?
Factors we change.
What is the dependent variable?
the changes that arise from the experienment
Structure of the Earth's Composition
Inner Core, Outer Core, Mantel, Crust, and Atmpshere
Sum of all ecosystems
Outer portion of the planet: the crust and upper mantle
mass of water on the planet
Origin of the Earth
Formed from a solar nebula
The Planet's beginnings
inner core, outer core, mantle, upper mantle, crust
Types of Rocks
Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic
Formed when molten magna cools
Formed by deposition of organic matter or sediments
Subjecting any rock type to different temperature or pressure
3.5-1.5 BYA: Ancient Era
1.5-.57 BYA: First Animal Era
570-225 MYA: Ancient Animcal Era
225-65 MYA: Age of dinosaurs
65-0 MYA: Age of mammals
2-0 MYA: Age of Hominids
plates are moving in different directions at different speeds
plates are crashing
plates are pulling apart
plates are sideswiping eachother
Formation of waves
wind and air pressure
evaporation, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, runoff
freshwater has lower salinity
Birth of a start
star is born from a nebula- this phase is called a protostar. A protostar must maintain equallibrium
a cloud of dust and gas
Life and Death of a star
Nebula- protostar-fusion ignition- red giant, super giant-white dwarf/black whole- death
classification of stars
ranged from hottest to coldest:
blue, white, yellow, orange, red
Order of the planets
My Very Excellent Mother Just Sent Us Noodles
Mercery, venus, earth, mars jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune
frozen gases or and ice that follow the sun in an elongated orbit
a massive system of stars and stellar matter, dust clouds, gasses
occurs when an object is covering the sun or moon to create a shadow
new moon, waxing cresent, waxing gibbious, full moom, waning gibbious, waning cresent, new moon
fundimental building block: can form the most compounds
7 major characteritics of living things
1. Cellular organization
5. Growth and Development
2 types mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is most common.
cell splits and creates 2 identical daughter cells
creates sperm and egg cells
Nervous, Digestive, Curculatory, Reproductive
The body system of nervous tissues--organized into the brain,spinal courd, and nerves--that send and receive messages and integreate the body's activities.
the system that makes food absorbable into the body
The human body system that contians the heart, blood, and all of the blood vessels. It delivers all the nutrients to the cells
system of organs involved in producing offspring
types of reproduction in plants
asexual and sexual reproduction
reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
sexual plant reproduction
TYPE OF PLANT REPRODUCTION THAT INVOVLES SEEDS PRODUCED BY FEMALE AND MALE PLANTS, WHICH ARE THEN CROSSED-POLLINATED WITH HELP FROM INSECTS OR OTHER ANIMALS.
The scientific study of heredity
change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
characteristics of organisms that enhance their survival and reproduction in specific environments
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change
the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
the scientific study of how living things are classified: Domane, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, decomposers
that which has mass and occupies space
a molecule composed of one kind of atom; cannot be broken into simpler units by chemical reactions.
structure of an atom
protons, neutrons, and electrons
positively charged particle
neutral particle of an atom
negatively charged particles
total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom, measured in atomic mass units
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
the process by which an atomic nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting ionizing particles
They contain at least two or more different elements. Ex. water which is H2O (hydrogen and oxygen)
law of gravity
Newton's idea that "what goes up, must come down"
a change in which one or more substances combine or break apart to form new substances
Two or more substances that are mixed together but not chemically combined
changes that alter a substance without changing its composition
a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.
the state in which one object's distance from another is changing
newton's law of motion
for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
the energy of motion
conservation of energy
a fundamental principle stating energy cannot be created nor destroyed but only changed from one form to another
the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)
kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules
the movement of energy from a warmer object to a cooler object
a machine with few moving parts, making it easier to do work (there are 6: lever, pulley, wheel and axle, inclined plane, wedge, and screw)
energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor
Properties of attraction possesed by magnets
The process of decomposing a chemical compound by the passage of an electric current.
have medium-sized wavelengths, consist of tiny particles of radiation travel fast and straight, they don't require a material to travel through, and they can move through a vacuum.
changes in pressure caused when molecules of air or fluid collide with one another and then move apart again
properties of waves
Wavelength, Frequency, Velocity, Amplitude
warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere
An observed change in the frequency of a wave when the source or observer is moving
a disease that can be communicated from one person to another
a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions
subjects in an experiment to whom the independent variable is administered
the group that does not receive the experimental treatment.
the first stage of mitosis
2. all of the chromosomes are lined up in the middle of the spindle fibers.
3. the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
4. the final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes
the brain's center for information processing and control
responsible for automatic survival functions
helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
which gases make of the majority of the earth's atmosphere
nitrogen and oxygen
process of releasing atomic energy by bombarding a dense element with neutrons and splitting its nucleus
uv, v, b, g, y, o, r
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