When a patient asks the nurse what hypersensitivity is, how should the nurse respond? Hypersensitivity is best defined as:
An excessive or inappropriate response of the immune system to a sensitizing antigen
A 5-year-old female takes a hike through the woods during a school field trip. Upon returning home, she hugs her father, and he later develops poison ivy. Which of the following immune reactions is he experiencing?
When the maternal immune system becomes sensitized against antigens expressed by the fetus, what type of immune reaction occurs?
While planning care, a nurse recalls seasonal allergic rhinitis is expressed through:
A patient presents with poison ivy on the extremities, face, and buttocks. This condition is an example of:
A 10-year-old male is stung by a bee while playing in the yard. He begins itching and develops pain, swelling, redness, and respiratory difficulties. He is suffering from:
When a patient presents at the emergency department for an allergic reaction, the nurse recognizes the most severe consequence of a type I hypersensitivity reaction is:
When histamine is released in the body, which of the following responses would the nurse expect?
Type _______ hypersensitivity reactions do not involve an antibody response.
A 10-year-old male presents to his primary care provider reporting wheezing and difficulty breathing. History reveals that both of the child's parents suffer from allergies. Which of the following terms would be used to classify the child?
A 30-year-old female presents to her primary care provider reporting fatigue, excessive sweating, and increased appetite. Physical examination reveals protruding eyes, and laboratory testing reveals hyperthyroidism secondary to autoantibody production. This disorder falls into the category of type _____ hypersensitivity.
A 30-year-old male is having difficulty breathing and has been spitting blood. He reports that he began experiencing this reaction after cleaning his pigeons' cages. Testing reveals he is suffering from allergic alveolitis. Which of the following is he experiencing?
A nurse recalls an example of an immune-complex-mediated disease is:
Several prisoners are experiencing symptoms of tuberculosis. A tuberculin reaction test was ordered. This test is an example of type _____ hypersensitivity.
When a nurse cares for a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the nurse remembers this disease is an example of:
A 30-year-old female complains of fatigue, arthritis, rash, and changes in urine color. Laboratory testing reveals anemia, lymphopenia, and kidney inflammation. Assuming a diagnosis of SLE, which of the following is also likely to be present?
A 40-year-old female is diagnosed with SLE. Which of the following findings would be considered a symptom of this disease?
What is the chance that two siblings share both HLA haplotypes, making them a good match for an organ transplant from one to the other?
When a nurse notices that a patient has type O blood, the nurse realizes that anti-_____ antibodies are present in the patient's body.
A and B
In addition to matching ABO antigens, a blood transfusion must also be matched for:
A 15-year-old male suffers from severe hemorrhage following a motor vehicle accident. He is given a blood transfusion, but shortly afterward the red blood cells are destroyed by agglutination and lysis. Which of the following blood type-transfusion type matches would cause this?
When an immunologist teaches about the relationship that benefits the organism but causes no harm to the host, the immunologist is describing which of the following?
The microorganisms that make up the normal human flora are important for:
Preventing the colonization and multiplication of pathogens
When bacterial pathogens enter a patient's body, they can defend themselves from an immune response by:
A person is given an attenuated antigen as a vaccine. When the person asks what was given in the vaccine, how should the nurse respond? The antigen is:
Alive, but less infectious
An immunologist is discussing endotoxin production. Which information should the immunologist include? Endotoxins are produced by:
A 5-year-old male becomes ill with a severe cough. Histologic examination reveals a bacterial infection, and further laboratory testing reveals cell membrane damage and decreased protein synthesis. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this illness?
A 50-year-old female experiences decreased blood pressure, decreased oxygen delivery, cardiovascular shock, and subsequent death. A complication of endotoxic shock is suspected. Which of the following is the most likely cause?
After studying about viruses, which information indicates the student has a good understanding of viruses? Viruses:
Replicate their genetic material inside host cells
A patient has chicken pox. How does the varicella replicate?
In the cytoplasm
A 25-year-old female reports having unprotected sexual intercourse with several men. Blood tests reveal that she is positive for human papillomavirus. What else should the nurse assess for?
After studying about fungi, which information indicates a correct understanding of fungi? Fungi causing deep or systemic infections:
Are commonly opportunistic
When trying to distinguish between an infectious disease and noninfectious disease, what is the hallmark symptom for most infectious diseases?
Which information indicates a correct understanding of viral vaccines? Most viral vaccines contain:
Which information indicates a good understanding of bacterial vaccines? Most bacterial vaccines contain:
A nurse recalls bacteria become resistant to antimicrobials by:
What common symptom should be assessed in individuals with immunodeficiency?
A 5-year-old male presents with low-set ears, a fish-shaped mouth, and involuntary rapid muscular contraction. Laboratory testing reveals decreased calcium levels. Which of the following diagnosis is most likely?
A 22-year-old was recently diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Which decreased lab finding would be expected to accompany this virus?
Which of the following is a characteristic of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS?
HIV is a retrovirus
A 30-year-old male was diagnosed with HIV. Which of the following treatments would be most effective?
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)
When the immunologist says that pathogens possess infectivity, what is the immunologist explaining? Infectivity allows pathogens to:
Adapt and multiply in the host
When the immunologist says that pathogens possess virulence, what does virulence mean?
The nurse would correctly respond that the etiology of a congenital immune deficiency is due to a(n):
An infant is experiencing hemolytic disease of the newborn. Which of the following would the nurse expect to find in the infant's history and physical?
The baby is Rh+
Delayed hypersensitivity vs immediate hypersensitivity reactions.
Reactions that occur within minutes to a few hours after exposure to antigen are termed immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Delayed hypersensitivity reactions may take several hours to appear and are maximal severity days after reexposure to the antigen. Generally, immediate reactions are caused by antibody, whereas delayed reactions are caused by cells (T cells, NK cells, macrophages, etc.). Example of delayed hypersensitivity is poison ivy exposure. It will take up to 72 hours for the response to develop.
The capacity of a pathogen to cause severe disease.
The ability of the pathogen to invade and multiply in a host.
Ability to spread from one individual to others and cause disease
ABility of pathogens to induce an immune response
Ability of an agent to produce disease-success depends on communicability, infectivity, externt of tissue damage, and virulence.
ABility to produce soluble toxins or endotoxins, factors that greatly influence the pathogen's degree of virulence.