A cell junction found in the epithelium lining the bladder would most likely be a _______
A cell junction found in the connection between skeletal muscle cells and that keep them from ripping apart duing contraction would most likely be _______
Cell junctions that allow direct cell to cell transfer of electrical or chemical signals are called:
The extracellular matrix is composed mainly of _______, which are made on the _______ of the cell.
protein fibers, endomembrane system
N-CAMs are primarily responsible for:
nerve growth during development
Which statement is correct concerning how the molecular composition of a plant cell wall compares with the ECM of animal cells? -In the plant cell wall, the ground substance surrounding the fibers contains carbohydrates; in the ECM it does not. -The fibers in a plant cell wall are proteins; ECM fibers are dominated by carbohydrates. -Plant cell walls exhibit fundamentally different design principles than ECM. -Plant cell wall fibers consist of carbohydrates; ECM fibers are dominated by proteins.
Plant cell wall fibers consist of carbohydrates; ECM fibers are dominated by proteins.
Because cell walls consist of a cross-linked network of long filaments embedded in a stiff surrounding material, they can be called _______,
The most abundant protein found in the extracellular matrix of animal cells is _______.
One characteristic of life and living systems is that they are able to adapt. Toward this end, cells interact with other cells and their environment through the action of their _______.
plasma membrane and extracellular matrix
Integrins are integral membrane proteins. They are often attached to _______.
cytoskeletal proteins and proteins in the extracellular matrix
Scientists have found that extracellular matrix components may induce specific gene expression in embryonic tissues such as the liver and testes. For this to happen there must be direct communication between the extracellular matrix and the developing cells. Which kind of transmembrane protein would most likely be involved in this kind of induction?
Membrane protein complexes that strengthen the adhesion between adjacent cells, like rivets, to protect against pulling forces. -Choose one: Cellulose, plasmodesmata, collagen, gap junctions, or tight junctions -Choose one: animal or plant
Small channels that form across the plasma membranes of adjacent cells; especially important in intercellular communication. -Choose one: Cellulose, plasmodesmata, collagen, gap junctions, or tight junctions -Choose one: animal or plant
gap junctions, animal
Membrane proteins that create a watertight seal between cells. -Choose one: Cellulose, plasmodesmata, collagen, gap junctions, or tight junctions -Choose one: animal or plant
tight junctions, animal
Small channels between cells that are otherwise surrounded by walls; enable movement of water and solutes between cells. -Choose one: Cellulose, plasmodesmata, collagen, gap junctions, or tight junctions -Choose one: animal or plant
A polysaccharide that is used to synthesize cell walls and help maintain their shape. -Choose one: Cellulose, plasmodesmata, collagen, gap junctions, or tight junctions -Choose one: animal or plant
Long fibers of protein found in the extracellular matrix that provide structural support for cells. -Choose one: Cellulose, plasmodesmata, collagen, gap junctions, or tight junctions -Choose one: animal or plant
Which of these cell junctions form a barrier to the passage of materials? -keratin fibers -gap (communicating) junctions -tight junctions -desmosomes (anchoring junctions) -plasmodesmata
The primary role of _____ is to bind animal cells together.
_____ aid in the coordination of the activities of adjacent animal cells.
Gap (communicating) junctions
Look at diagrams in cell junctions, ECM, and CAMs
The most common 'on' signal for activating proteins during the process of signal transduction is through the addition of a phosphate gourp by a _____________ enzyme.
SIgnal transduction pathways: -are necessary for signals to cross the membrane. -are only found in cases where the signal can cross the membrane. -include the extracellular events stimulated by an intracellular signal. -include the intracellular events stimulated by an extracellular signal.
include the intracellular events stimulated by an extracellular signal.
The function of a _________ is to add phosphates to proteins, whereas a _______ functions to remove the phosphates.
protein kinase, protein phosphate
How does the function of an intracellular receptor differ from that of a membrane receptor?
The intracellular receptor binds DNA or binds a Transcription Factor protein that binds DNA
The receptors for steroid hormones and peptide hormons are fundamentally different because: -of the great difference in size of the molecule. -peptides are hydrophilic (lipophobic) and steroids are hydrophobic (lipophilic) -peptides are hydrophobic (lipophilic) and steroids are hydrophilic (lipophobic) -peptides are one of the four major polymers and steroids are simple ringed structures.
peptides are hydrophilic (lipophobic) and steroids are hydrophobic (lipophilic)
The receptor type with the fastes response time, which often leads to a change in membrane voltage is _________________.
a ligand gated channel receptor
The ______________ membrane receptor is connected to a ______________ element on the cytoplamic side of the membrane and leads to a rapid change in the shape of the cell when it's respective ligand is bound to the receptor site on the outside.
The binding of the signal molecule to the receptor side on the outside of a G protein receptor, leads to the activation of the tethered G proteins on the inside of the membrane due the the replacement of __________ with _________.
The enzyme Adenylyl Cyclase is actived by the activated alpha unit of G protein. Once activated the adenylyl clyclase produces the second messenger molecule ____________, which transduces the response of the cell.
The amplifier enayme Guanylyl Cyclase produces the second messenger ___________ and this enzyme is activated by a ____________ like tyrosine kinase.
The lipid derived second messengers produced by the activation of the enzyme Phospholipase C by the activted beta-gamma G protein complekx are the soluble second messenger ___________ and the membrane bound second messenger _____________ .
The Lipid-dervived second messenger _______________ diffuses to receptors on the smooth ER, thereby opening gates that releases _____________ ions, which drives exocytosis of chemicals stored in _____________ vessicles.
IP3, calcium, secretory
Label as either G protein-coupled receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, both types of receptors, or neither receptor: -receptor is located in the plasma membrane -binding of the signaling molecule allows ions to flow through a channel in the receptor -catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the receptor -binding site for signaling molecule is located on the extracellular side of the cell -interact directly with G proteins -binding of the signaling molecule forms a dimer
G protein-coupled receptors: interact directly with G proteins receptor tyrosine kinases: catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the receptor, binding of the signaling molecule forms a dimer both types of receptors: binding site for signaling molecule is located on the extracellular side of the cell, receptor is located in the plasma membrane neither receptor: binding of the signaling molecule allows ions to flow through a channel in the receptor
Histamine is a chemical substance released in inflammatory and allergic responses. The histamine H1 receptor on target cells is a G protein-coupled receptor that activates phospholipase C in response to the binding of histamine. Which statements are true about the binding of histamine to the histamine H1 receptor? Select all that apply. -Histamine diffuses across the plasma membrane to bind to the H1 receptor. -Histamine binds extracellularly to the H1 receptor. -When histamine binds to the H1 receptor, the receptor undergoes a conformation change and binds the inactive G protein. -Histamine binds intracellularly to the inactive G protein, activating the G protein. -Once the G protein is active, it binds to the enzyme phospholipase C, activating it. -Histamine is likely hydrophilic.
-Histamine binds extracellularly to the H1 receptor. -When histamine binds to the H1 receptor, the receptor undergoes a conformation change and binds the inactive G protein. -Once the G protein is active, it binds to the enzyme phospholipase C, activating it. -Histamine is likely hydrophilic.
Look at diagrams on Long distance cell-cell communication
Label as either reception, transduction, or response: -adenylyl cyclase -IP3 -signaling molecule -second messenger -protein synthesis -cAMP -receptor tyrosine kinase -phosphorylation cascade -Ca2+ -G protein-coupled receptor
reception: signaling molecule, G protein-coupled receptor, receptor tyrosine kinase transduction- adenylyl cyclase, cAMP, Ca2+, IP3, phosphorylation cascade, second messenger response- protein synthesis
Which of the following could account for the different cellular responses to histamine? Select all that apply. -the type of signaling molecule -the types of relay molecules within the cell -the enzyme that is activated by the G protein associated with the receptor -the type of second messengers involved in the signal transduction pathway -the cell type in which the histamine receptor is located
-the types of relay molecules within the cell -the enzyme that is activated by the G protein associated with the receptor -the type of second messengers involved in the signal transduction pathway -the cell type in which the histamine receptor is located
The cleavage of glycogen by glycogen phosphorylase releases _____.
Epinephrine acts as a signal molecule that attaches to _____ proteins.
Which of these is a receptor for calcium ions?
Which of these is NOT correct? -Cyclic AMP binds to calmodulin. -Phospholipase C catalyzes the formation of IP3. -Tyrosine-kinase receptors consist of two polypeptides that join when activated by a signal molecule. -Ion channels are found on both the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. -Kinases are enzymes that phosphorylate other molecules.
Cyclic AMP binds to calmodulin.
A toxin that inhibits the production of GTP would interfere with the function of a signal transduction pathway that is initiated by the binding of a signal molecule to _____ receptors.
A signal transduction pathway is initiated when a _____ binds to a receptor.
A signal molecule is also known as a(n) _____.
Which of these is the second of the three stages of cell signaling? -gene activation -reception -binding of a neurotransmitter to a plasma membrane receptor -transduction -cell response
Which of these extracellular signal molecules could diffuse through a plasma membrane and bind to an intracellular receptor? -glycerol -starch -glucose -cellulose -estrogen
A(n) _____ is an example of a signal molecule that can bind to an intracellular receptor and thereby cause a gene to be turned on or off.
Thyroid hormones bind to _____ receptors.
What role does a transcription factor play in a signal transduction pathway?
By binding to DNA it triggers the transcription of a specific gene.
In this animation, which of the following, when activated by a signal transduction pathway, moved from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of a cell?
A signal transduction pathway is initiated when a _____ binds to a receptor.
Which of these acts as a second messenger?
Calcium ions that act as second messengers are stored in _____.
_____ catalyzes the production of _____, which then opens an ion channel that releases _____ into the cell's cytoplasm.
Phospholipase C ... IP3 .... Ca2+
A protein kinase activating many other protein kinases is an example of _____.
Which answer correctly identifies a character from this scene with a component involved in signal transduction as shown in the figure below?
queen = G protein
Why does a hormone only act on specific cell types in an organism and not others?
A cell must have the appropriate receptor before it can bind to the hormone.
How is phosphorylation important in a signal transduction cascade?
Phosphorylation will turn an inactive protein into an active one, which triggers another response in the cell.
The receptors for steroid hormones are located inside the cell, instead of on the membrane surface like most other signal receptors. Why is this not a problem for steroids?
because steroid hormones are lipid soluble so can readily diffuse through the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane
Hormones are chemical substances produced in one organ that are released into the bloodstream and affect the function of a target organ. For the target organ to respond to a particular hormone, it must _____.
have receptors that recognize and bind the hormone molecule
Adrenalin is a hormone that binds to a receptor in the plasma membrane. Which statement best explains why adrenalin can stimulate cells in both the heart and liver, yet trigger different responses (increasing heart rate versus releasing glucose)? -Both tissues have adrenalin receptors but signal transduction activates different target proteins in heart versus liver. -Different molecular forms of adrenalin affect heart versus liver. -Both tissues have adrenalin receptors but the receptors directly activate different target proteins in heart versus liver. -The hormone signal is amplified in one tissue but not the other.
Both tissues have adrenalin receptors but signal transduction activates different target proteins in heart versus liver.
Which statement most accurately predicts what would happen to animal cells if they are treated with an enzyme that cuts integrin molecules? -The ECM surrounding the cells would dissolve. -The cytoskeleton of the cells would fall apart. -The adhesion of the cells to adjacent cells would be weakened. -The cell wall surrounding the cells would dissolve.
The adhesion of the cells to adjacent cells would be weakened.