Terms in this set (31)
held on Sept 29, 1938 in Munich Germany between Germany, France, Britain, and Italy. Czechs were not invited. They gave into Hitler's demand for control of Sudetenland in order to maintain peace. Hitler promised to respect Czechs new borders. Part of the policy of appeasement, and seen by Chamberlain as a victory.
This was the main Soviet tank in WWII. It proved to be a formidable opponent for the Nazi Panzer divisions. The Russians could build these quickly and in large numbers. They would help turn the tide on the Eastern front. The Germans did not suspect that the Soviets would have such effective technology.
German word meaning lightning war. It was a German army tactic during World War II which called for quick moving, hard hitting drives into enemy territory.
they were submarines operated by Germany. They were most effectively used in an economic warfare role by enforcing a naval blockade against enemy shipping. However, they were also successful fleet weapons. Their primary targets were merchant convoys bringing supplies from the British Empire and the US to the islands of Great Britain.
Battle of London
June-Sept. 1940; massive German air attack on Britain; their goal was to have control over the airspace above the English Channel; failed due to Britain's use of code-breaking and radar
was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland and preceding the Battle of France. Although the great powers of Europe had declared war on one another, neither side had yet committed to launching a significant attack, and there was relatively little fighting on the ground. October 1939 - April 1940.
a line of defensive fortifications constructed by the French along their eastern border, extending from Switzerland to Luxembourg, between 1929 and 1936. In World War II, although the defenses held, the Germans outflanked them, going through Belgium to conquer France.
Battle of Britain
the prolonged bombardment of British cities by the German Luftwaffe during World War II and the aerial combat that accompanied it. July - October 1940. British development of radar helped stave off the attack and by preventing the Germans from gaining air superiority, the Germans were kept from launching Operation Sea Lion.
(March 1938) This was the annexation of Austria into Germany under the Nazis. The Austrian leader instituted a plebiscite in an attempt to keep Austria independent, but Nazism and the unification of German-speaking people was popular in Austria, and the Austrian Nazi party had control of Austria's government. The combining of Austria and Germany was forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles, but Italy, France and Great Britain did nothing to oppose the Nazis. This is an example of appeasement.
Operation Sea Lion
the name given by Hitler for the planned invasion of Great Britain in 1940 by air and by sea. Never carried out due to the loss at the Battle of Britain.
tool used by the Royal Air Force to combat German attacks on Britain. Germans did not realize how advanced British radar was and it helped give them an important edge.
device used by the German military command to encode strategic messages before and during World War II; the code was broken by the Poles, but in 1939, when the potential for German invasion of Poland became an imminent certainty, the Poles turned the secrets behind this device over to the British, who created a secret group of code-breakers under the codename "Ultra"
Foreign policy followed by the British government, and later by the French, in their dealings with the Axis powers from 1937-39. It was designed to avoid war by giving way to some of their demands and by conceding territory to them, notably the Sudetenland area of Czechoslovakia by the Munich Agreement in 1938.
1st September 1939 Hitler invaded Poland. By the 3rd of September Britain and France declared war on Germany upholding the Polish Pledge. WWII declared. Hitler used Blitzkrieg tactics and quickly overwhelmed the Polish people. In four weeks it was over and Poland was divided up between Germany and the Soviet Union.
Operation Barbarossa was the German codename for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II, which commenced on June 22, 1941. It was to be the turning point of the fortunes of Hitler's Third Reich in that the failure of Operation Barbarossa arguably resulted in the eventual overall defeat of Nazi Germany. The Eastern Front which was opened by Operation Barbarossa would become the biggest theatre of war in World War II, with some of the largest and most brutal battles. Led by General Halder.
The joint declaration, in August 1941, by Roosevelt and Churchill, stating common principles for the free world: self-determination, free choice of government, equal opportunities for all nations for trade, permanent system of general security and disarmament.
This is the belief that Judaism and Bolshevism are intrinsically intertwined. It was a core belief of Facism because it equated Jews and communists, although Jews were not the majority of the communist party (there were some very visible Jewish communists). This belief was used by the Nazis both to assert that all Jews were communists and that communism had Jewish intentions at the forefront of its action plan. This is also a strange concept because Jews were simultaneously equated with capitalism (Jews love money/run the world economy) and with Bolshevism (Jews care about communism/socialism). This was another tactic of alienation against the Jews and it gave a reason and justification for invading USSR in 1941 (to get rid of Judaism) because Judeo-Bolshevism was trying to take over the world. This idea was widely used in Goebbels propaganda, which was seen by all inhabitants of the Nazi regime.
Spanish Civil War
Fascists led by General Franco fought supporters of the existing republic in the 1930s; Germany and Italy aided the victorious Franco. By invading Ethiopia and sending troops to Spain, Italy removes itself from the possibility of an alliance with Britain.
Battle of the Atlantic
Germany's naval attempt to cut off British supply ships by using u-boats. Caused Britain and the US to officially join the war after their ships were sunk. After this battle, the Allies won control of the seas, allowing them to control supply transfer, which ultimately determined the war. 1939-1945
(1) March 1941 law that allowed any nation deemed "vital to the defense of the US" (Britain & even the USSR after Hitler attacked it) to borrow/rent weapons; (2) a key move in support of the Allied cause before the US formally entered WWII, and one that provoked German naval attacks on American targets even before the Pearl Harbor attacks
German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia, ceded to Germany in the Hitler- Chamberlain Munich meeting (September 1938).
In the Treaty of Versailles; declared Germany and Austria-Hungary responsible for WWI; ordered Germany to pay reparation to Allied powers
(German for "habitat" or literally "living space") served as a major motivation for Nazi Germany's territorial aggression. In his book Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler detailed his belief that the German people needed Lebensraum (for a Grossdeutschland, land, and raw materials), and that it should be taken in the East. It was the stated policy of the Nazis to kill, deport, Germanize or enslave the Polish, and later also Russian and other Slavic populations, and to repopulate the land with reinrassig Germanic peoples. The entire urban population was to be exterminated by starvation, thus creating an agricultural surplus to feed Germany and allowing their replacement by a German upper class.
November 1937: Hitler presides over a meeting of his general staff and says that war is inevitable. According to Adolf, the first steps would be attacking the east and the absorption of Austria, but this would also mean a two-front war. Hitler is not planning on this and is horrified by the thought. Kolonel Hossbach is present at this meeting and takes notes, which are later used to serve as evidence that Hitler was preparing a war as far back as 1937. This is known as the Hossbach Memorandum.
was an agreement officially titled the Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union and signed in Moscow in the late hours of 23 August 1939. It was a non-aggression pact under which the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany each pledged to remain neutral in the event that either nation were attacked by a third party. It remained in effect until 22 June 1941, when Germany started its invasion of the Soviet Union, called Operation Barbarossa. Allowed Hitler to invade Poland.
Prime Minister of England who was the principal architect of the "Appeasement Policy" of 1937. This involved a noncommittal and appeasing approach to the more legitimate demands of dictators in order to avoid war. At this time in Europe, pacifism was a rampant attitude - largely a reaction to the horrors of WWI and the upheaval of the Depression that kept countries concerned with domestic matters.
Battle of France
The Battle of France was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries, which ended the Phoney War. The battle consisted of two main operations. In the first, Fall Gelb (Case Yellow), German armoured units pushed through the Ardennes, to cut off and surround the Allied units that had advanced into Belgium. During the fighting, the British Expeditionary Force and many French soldiers were evacuated from Dunkirk in Operation Dynamo. May 10th, 1940. The French surrender by mid-June.
WWI hero. Led dictatorial French government from Vichy, signed armistice with Hitler that allowed Germany to occupy the northern half of France and the coast, leaving a neutral France in control of the rest. He followed a policy of close collaboration with the Nazis.
this operation was an air war for supremacy over the Channel began in August 1940; Britain's advantages were a German encoding machine, Enigma, and radar.
Germans bombing campaign.
Hitler's air force. He tried to use it to bomb England into submission, but this strategy failed. The RAF (Royal Air Force) though fewer in number, were more maneuverable then German planes. The RAF also had radar, a new electronic device that gave the British enough early warning so they would not be caught by surprise.
A set of international standards of conduct for treating prisoners of war, established in 1929. The war in the East does no abide by these rules.